Skráningarfærsla handrits

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AM 544 4to

Hauksbók ; Iceland and Norway, 1290-1360

Athugasemd
AM 544 4to is one of three manuscripts collectively known as Hauksbók (AM 371 4to, AM 544 4to og AM 675 4to). It is a compilation manuscript deriving its name from its first owner Haukr Erlendsson (1294-99), lögmaður of Southeastern Iceland and later in Norway. Haukr Erlendsson, together with other Icelandic and Norwegian scribes, wrote the manuscript at the beginning of the fourteenth century in Norway. AM 544 4to contains historical works on events both real and legendary; theological, philosophical, scientific and mathematical pieces, as well as an independent version of the poem 'Vǫluspá'.

Innihald

1 (1r-14v)
Geographica qvædam et physica, Theologica qvædam ex sermonibus Augustini, Varia, atqve inter ea Astronomica qvædam
Höfundur

Ælfric

Vensl

AM 765 4to is Árni Magnússon's autograph copy of fols 1r-4r and 8r-9r.

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 150-177

Jón Þorkelsson, Nokkur blöð úr Hauksbók

Athugasemd

Fols 1r-14v contain a collection of dissertations and excerpts on geographical, chronological and theological subjects. Ends defectively.

Tungumál textans
norræna
1.1 (1r-v:23)
On famous rivers and miraculous springs
Upphaf

Brunnr er einn i paradiso. er or falla fiorar ar hingat i þenna heim.

Niðurlag

En ef hia er þeim latet | liggia kleði eða vll eða smo tre. þa verðr alt at steíní.

Notaskrá

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 430-432 Edited in extracts from the copy AM 765 4to

Efnisorð
1.2 (1v:24 -2r:9)
Prologus
Titill í handriti

prologus

Upphaf

ÞAt er sagt at moyses tki þat rað fystr.

Niðurlag

oc namo þar siðan að-|rer eftír þeim at skrifa a bokum þau tiðendi er eigi skyldi or min-|ni liða.

Notaskrá

Werlauff, Symbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Ævi s. 5:26-28 Extract

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 432-433 Edited from the copy AM 765 4to

Efnisorð
1.3 (2r:9-20)
A Piece on Paradise
Titill í handriti

fra paradiso.

Upphaf

Sva er sagt at paradis er hinn sti lutr þessarar veraldar

Niðurlag

oc veria biorg oc hitar at menn skili eigi þangat | komast.

Notaskrá

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 433 Edited from the copy AM 765 4to

Efnisorð
1.4 (2r:20-4r:7)
A Geographical Compendium
Titill í handriti

her segír fra þui huersu lond liggia i veroldenní.

Upphaf

Þessarar bygðar þa er indialand yst.

Niðurlag

þar er mein-|langs borg a. henní var ambrosius byskup.

Notaskrá

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 434-439 Edited from AM 765 4to

Werlauff, Symbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Ævi s. 9-12 Some extracts in footnotes

Efnisorð
1.5 (4r:7-8r:12)
Sermon
Titill í handriti

vm þat huaðan otru hofst.

Upphaf

Líufír brðr.

Niðurlag

a hinum hel-|ga crosse.

Efnisorð
1.6 (8r:12-v:7)
How Noah's Sons Divided The World Amongst Themselves
Titill í handriti

Fra þuí huar huerr noa sona bygði heíminn.

Upphaf

Synir noa voro .iij. þeir skiftu ollum heímí m ser huar kyn huers þeira | skilldi byggia.

Niðurlag

þa verða tungur alsz .ij. oc .lxx. en þioð | lond. þushundrað.

Notaskrá

Werlauff, Symbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Ævi s. 9 A small extract in the footnotes

Efnisorð
1.7 (8v:7-9r:31)
On Various Fantastic Peoples
Titill í handriti

her segir fra marghattaðum þioðum.

Upphaf

Sva segia froðar bkr at i heímínum se sua marg hattað|ar þioðer beði at vęxti oc at eðli.

Niðurlag

þeir ero sua við | menn sem olmer hundar.

Notaskrá

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 440-441 Short extracts from the copy AM 765 4to

Efnisorð
1.8 (9r:31-10v:27)
Sermon
Titill í handriti

Her segir

Upphaf

Hin helgi byskup er heitir augustinus melti við þa menn er hann var kennímaðr | yfír.

Niðurlag

beði þessa heíms oc sua annars | þat se. A-M-E-N.

Efnisorð
1.9 (10v:28-12r:11)
Four Passages From Elucidarius
Titill í handriti

her segir huaðan blot skur guða hofust.

Upphaf

Ef aller gofgaðu einn guð fyst i upp hafe.

Niðurlag

þetta er at dma lifendr oc dauða.

Efnisorð
1.10 (12r:11-13r:26)
A Sermon On Embers Day
Titill í handriti

vm ímbru daga hald.

Upphaf

Moyses bauð gyðingum forðum i logum at hallda ímbru daga | ferna a hueríum .ij. miserum.

Niðurlag

Sa er lifir oc | rikir með feðr oc syni oc anda helgum vm allar allder j einum guð|dome. A-

Efnisorð
1.11 (13r:26-v:11)
On The Rainbow
Titill í handriti

vm regnboga.

Upphaf

A Regn boga ero þrir lítír.

Niðurlag

oc nokor miseri siðan at eigi skilldi oftar | floð koma þat er heimen yddi sua sem a hans dogum hafðe orðet.

Efnisorð
1.12 (13v:11-14r:4)
On The Course Of The Sun
Titill í handriti

vm solstoðr

Upphaf

Þa er laupar hefer veret um varet aðr a þeim degi er .x. netr ero | til ions messo

Niðurlag

Sia er solar gangr at tolo stiorno oddae norðan a islande.

1.13 (14r:5-v)
On Foreign Towns And The Burial Places Of Holy Men
Titill í handriti

vm borga skipan oc legstaðe heilagra manna.

Upphaf

Rvma borg er yfir ollum borgom.

Niðurlag

oc af bondom hins

2 (15r-19v)
Theologica qvædam, videntur esse úr Adamsbók
Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 178-187

Tungumál textans
norræna
2.1 (15r:1-9)
Sagan af Guðs þiónústumaðr
Upphaf

vin þinn þer. þui segi ek

Niðurlag

konungr bað | menn sina lata fara hann með naðum þuiat hann er guðs þiónóstu maðr.

Efnisorð
2.2 (15r:9-16r:3)
A Conversation Between A Pupil And A Master
Titill í handriti

fra | heilræðum spekínga

Upphaf

Nv spurði lærisveinn meistara sinn.

Niðurlag

þat vetti oss faðir ok sun ok hinn helgi andi amen

2.3 (16r:4-17r:14)
A Treatise On The Four Elements And Their Mixture In Man's Blood
Titill í handriti

Af natturu mannzins ok bloði.

Upphaf

Allzvalltandi guð er af | engu efni gerði alla luti.

Niðurlag

ok fellr þui vari slefa oruósum | sem bornum

Notaskrá

Möbius, Analecta norræna s. 201-203

2.4 (17r:14-18v:31)
On Seth's Journey To Paradise And On the Cross of Christ
Titill í handriti

huaðan kominn er ✠ drottins

Upphaf

Sva er sagt siðan adam | hafði syndína gerua i paradíso.

Niðurlag

ok sannaðiz sua | spasaga drotningar.

Notaskrá

Möbius, Analecta norræna s. 204-207

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur s. 298-301

Efnisorð
2.5 (18v:31-35)
A List Of Twelve Unseemly Things In The World
Upphaf

Þesser eru xíj heíms osomar þeir er tela allt veralldar lif

Niðurlag

lyðr laga lauss.

Notaskrá

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur s. 301 Footnote 1

2.6 (19r)
A Plan Of Jerusalem With Drawings Of Churches And Temples
Titill í handriti

Civitas Hiervsalem famosisima

Tungumál textans
latína
Efnisorð
2.7 (19v)
Afsaknir Fyrir Samneyti Við Bannsetta
Upphaf

Uær vilium þat birta fyri folke af huerium til fellum þeir menn | megu lglega af sakaz sem bansettum monnum samneyta sua at þeir falla | i ecke bann eða forboð fyri þa skyld.

Niðurlag

ok fær hann eigi forðaz þeira samneyte.

Efnisorð
3 (20r-21r)
Vǫluspá
Upphaf

Hlioðs bið ek allar helgar kindir meiri ok minni mǫgu heimdallar villtv at ek vafǫðrs vel | framm telia forn spiǫll fira þau er ek fremzr vm man.

Niðurlag

Kemr hinn | dimi dreki fliugandi naðr fraann neðan fra niða berr sier i | fiǫðrum flygr uǫll yfir niðhoggr nai nv man hon sǫkk|vaz.

Notaskrá

Bugge, Norrœn Fornkvæði s. 19-26

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 188-192

Finnur Magnússon, Edda Sæmundar hinns Fróða 1828 III s. 195-208

Jón Helgason, Eddadigte I s. 39-41 The edition contains some corrections of Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson's edition and an attempt to read the bottom part of fol. 20v.

Konráð Gíslason, Fire og fyrretyve Prøver s. 534-544

Möbius, Edda Sæmundar hins fróða 1860 s. 265-272

Athugasemd

The text is different from Vǫluspá in Codex Regius and in Snorri's Edda and represents an independent record based on oral tradition.

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
4 (22r-33v)
Trójumanna saga
Titill í handriti

Her hefr troio manna sogv

Upphaf

A Dogvm Josve er hofðingi var a iorsala | landi yfir gyþinga lyð eftir moyises

Niðurlag

en her eftir hefir sogv fra enea ok þeim er bretland bygðv

Notaskrá

Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1848 s. 4-100

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 193-226

Tungumál textans
norræna
5 (34r)
Seven Precious Stones And Their Nature
Upphaf

Ematistvs hefir pvrpvralit sem vindropi

Niðurlag

ok vtan vm linklæði þa er sagt at hann btir riðv ok allzkyns meínsemðer

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 227-228

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
6 (35v)
Cisio Janus
Upphaf

Cicio ianus epi cibi uendicat oct fe ma maran

Niðurlag

Sicca uiris afia curuis rex bustet cauet sic Brito creans stilbon ori | ʀis aud saba uiris as

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 229-230

Athugasemd

Cicio Janus is a versified Latin enumeration for remembering the church festivals throughout the year.

Tungumál textans
latína
Efnisorð
7 (36r-59r)
Breta sǫgur Including Merlínusspá
Titill í handriti

her hefr breta sogvr

Upphaf

Nv er at segia af enea envm | millda at hann rakz lengi i hafe þa er hann for af troio ok | kom hann vm siþir við sikiley.

Niðurlag

hann fostradi hakon svn haralz konungs harfagra

Notaskrá

Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1848 s. 102-214 (Fols 36r-48r:11) 1849 s. 4-144 (Fols 48r.11-59r)

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 231-302

Finnur Jónsson, Den Norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning A II s. 10-36 B II s. 10-45 Fols 49r:10-53r:6. Merlínusspá

Tungumál textans
norræna
8 (60r-68v)
Two Dialogues
Titill í handriti

Vrða likams ok salar

Upphaf

BOk þersa gerði meistari valltíʀ af samburð | tveɢia manna ok rœðir hvaʀ við annan af sinv efni hvaʀ

Niðurlag

en heímr eɢiar hegoma þat er at heliaz a veralldar

Notaskrá

Gunnar Harðarson: Littérature et spiritualité en Scandinavie médiévale s. 195-246 H upper text; starting at fol. 61v.

Möbius, Analecta norræna s. 260-263 Extracts

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur I s. 446-473

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 303-330

Tungumál textans
norræna
9 (69r-72v:9)
Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar
Vensl

AM 326 b 4to is a copy of Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar written by Ásgeir Jónsson. It was most possibly copied during the winter 1697-98, when Ásgeir was in Copenhagen. This copy is of particular importance because it was written when a leaf which has since disapeared was still to be found before the present fol. 69.

Upphaf

seð hafa. loðin svarar sva sagða ek

Niðurlag

ok andaðiz i þeiri einsetv

Notaskrá

Icelandic Sagas I s. 372:14-387

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 336:4-349

Baktitill

ok lykr þar | nv fra hemingi at segia

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
10 (72v:9-76v)
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
Titill í handriti

her hefr vpp sogv heiðreks konvngs ens | vitra

Upphaf

Sva er sagt at i fyrndinni var kallað iotvnheímar norðr | i finnmork en ymis land fyri svnnan ok millim haloga landz

Niðurlag

en fvglar flvgv yfir havfði þer ok tveimmegin þin þat var þeira vegr þv

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 350-365:12

Heiðreks saga. Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks konungs s. 1-83 Lower text

Hervararsaga og Heidreks s. 203-236:17

Möbius, Analecta norræna s. 33-42 Fols 72v:27-74v:9

Petersen, Hervarar Saga 1847

Rafn, Antiquités Russes I s. 115-137

Rafn, Fornaldar Sögur Nordrlanda I s. 513-533

Suhm, Hervararsaga 1785 s. 2-132:3

Athugasemd

The saga ends in the beginning of the riddle section known as Heiðreks gátur.

Tungumál textans
norræna
11 (77r-89v:35)
Fóstbrœðra saga
Upphaf

kenningar nafn at þv skallt kolbrvnar skalld heita

Niðurlag

Nv lk. sva sem. sagt. var ęfi þormoðar kolbrvnar skallds

Notaskrá

Björn K. Þórólfsson, Fóstbræðra saga s. 70-216 Top text

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 370-416

Fóstbræðra saga 1852 s. 63-112

Grønlands historiske Mindesmærker II s. 282-402 Extracts

Rafn, Antiquités Russes II s. 349-350 Extracts

Baktitill

ok lykr her fra sogn þeiri er ver | kvnvm at segia fra þormodi kappa hins. helga olafs. konvngs

Athugasemd

Pictures of the text describing the battle of Stiklastaðir [fols 78v-79r].

Tungumál textans
norræna
12 (89v:35-93r:17)
Algorismus
Titill í handriti

her byriar algorismum

Upphaf

List þessi heitir algorismvs

Niðurlag

figvrv er her er sidaʀ. ger. ok kollvt er kvbvs | perfectvs

Notaskrá

Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 1848 s. 354-374

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 417-424

Tungumál textans
norræna
13 (93r:17-101v:24)
Eiríks saga rauða
Titill í handriti

Her hefr upp Sogu þeirra Þor|finnz Karlsefnis oc Snorra Þorbrandz-|sonar.

Vensl

Fols 60-83 of AM 1008 4to contains a copy of this saga. The hand is unidentified; corrections by Árni Magnússon.

Upphaf

Olafr het her konvngr er kalladr var oloafr hviti

Niðurlag

veri gvð með ors ameɴ

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 425-444

Grønlands Historiske Mindesmærker I s. 352-494

Perkins, The Furðustrandir of Eiríks saga Rauða s. 88-96 Fol. 99r:17-v:34

Rafn, Antiqvitates Americanæ s. 84-167

Reeves, The Finding of Wineland the Good 1967 s. 104-121 With facs. of fols 93r-101v

Sagorna om Vinland s. 26-81

Storm, Eiríks saga rauða og Flatøbogens Grænlendingaþáttr samt Uddrag fra Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar s. 1-48 Ed. A

Athugasemd

Added by Árni Magnússon.

Pictures of fols 97v-98r: The description of Wineland.

Tungumál textans
norræna
14 (101v:25-104v:17)
Skálda saga
Titill í handriti

Her hefr sogv skallda Harallz konvngs harfagra

Vensl

  • AM 307 4to, AM 67 a fol. and AM 67 b fol. are copies of Skálda saga.
  • AM 307 4to has lacunae where the original was indistinct. However, Árni Magnússon has has filled in text corresponding to the bottom lines of fol. 101v. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.
  • AM 67 a fol. is written by Ásgeir Jónsson, most possibly in the winter of 1697-98, when he stayed in Copenhagen. There are a few lacunae, particularly in the reproduction of fol. 102r.
  • AM 67 b fol. is another, almost identical, copy by Ásgeir Jónsson. It has, however, some mistakes which are not in AM 67 a fol., and it is probably a copy of the latter and not of Hauksbók itself.

Upphaf

HAralldr konvngr harfagri reð fyri noregi

Niðurlag

ok segir her ecki lengra af hanvm

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 445-455

Fornmanna Sögur III s. 65-82 This edition was printed from copies. Hauksbók itself was not discovered until the printing was finished, and so was only used for some corrections on the last unnumbered page of the volume.

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
15 (104v:18-105r:21)
Af Upplendinga konungum
Titill í handriti

af vpplendinga konvngvm

Vensl

AM 307 4to is a copy. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.

Upphaf

OLafr svn ingiallz konvngs illraða af svia ʀiki rvddi ver|maland

Niðurlag

ok af hans nafni erv ynglingar kallader

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 456-457

Langebek, Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Ævi II s. 266-270:18 With a Latin translation by Jón Ólafsson from Svefneyjar

Rafn, Fornaldar Sögur Nordrlanda II s. 103-106

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
16 (105r:21-107v)
Ragnarssona þáttr
Titill í handriti

Her seger af Ragnars sv|nvm ok hversv margir konvngar erv komner af þeim

Vensl

AM 307 4to is a copy. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.

Upphaf

Eftir davða rings konvngs tok | ragnaʀ svn hans konvngdóm yfir svia velldi ok dana

Niðurlag

þeira svn var haralldr konvngr enn harfagri er fystr varð einvallz konvngr yfer ollvm norege

Notaskrá

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 458-467

Langebek, Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Ævi II s. 270:19-286 With a Latin translation by Jón Ólafsson from Svefneyjar.

Rafn, Fornaldar Sögur Nordrlanda I s. 345-360

Tungumál textans
norræna
17 (107v)
Prognostica Temporum
Upphaf

Si prima feria fuerit kalenda ianuaríj

Niðurlag

hominibus in notu

Notaskrá

Rafn, Fornaldar Sögur Nordrlanda I s. xxi-xxii Extract

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók s. 468-469

Tungumál textans
latína
Efnisorð

Lýsing á handriti

Blaðefni

Parchment.

Blaðfjöldi
107. Fols 21v, 34v-35r and 59v were originally blank. 243 mm x 158 mm
Tölusetning blaða

Besides Kålund's foliation in red in the upper right-hand corner, there are two older foliations. The earlier one is from c. 1800 and shows traces of an earlier random order of the gatherings; it includes fols 1r-14v, but not fols 102r-107v. Probably the gathering was lent out, perhaps for the use of the editing of Scriptores Rerum Danicarum, II .

Jón Sigurðsson did the second foliation and it is similar to the order mentioned by Árni Magnússon in AM 435 a 4to, although it has been done without consideration for fols 1r-14v as these leaves were not incorporated in the Reykjavík collection of antiquities until 1887.

Kveraskipan

The 107 leaves are divided into 14 gatherings:

  • I: Fols 1-8.
  • II: Fols 9-14. Fols 11+14 and 12+13 are conjugate, but fols 9 and 10 are single leaves. After fol. 14 two leaves which were conjugate with fols 9-10 have been excised: a narrow strip of each of the excised leaves remains in the spine of the book.
  • III: Fols 15-21. Fols 15+21 are conjugate, fol. 16 was a single leaf from the beginning, fols 17+20 seem to have been conjugate when Finnur Jónsson wrote his description of the manuscript, but are separate now, and so are fols 18+19, which presumably were once conjugate.
  • IV: Fols 22-29.
  • V: Fols 30-35. Fols 30+35 and 31+34 are conjugate, and so were fols 32+33 at one time, though they are separate now. The gathering never contained more than 6 leaves.
  • VI: Fols 36-43.
  • VII: Fols 44-51.
  • VIII: Fols 52-59. The two outermost leaves are divided by a cut, but were conjugate originally.
  • IX: Fols 60-68. Fols 60+68, 61+66, 62+65 and 63+64 are conjugate. Fol. 67 is a single leaf.
  • X: Fols 69-76.
  • XI: Fols 77-84.
  • XII: Fols 85-92.
  • XIII: Fols 93-100.
  • XIV: Fols 101-107. Fol. 101 is now a single leaf, but it is possible that it has been joined to a now excised leaf at the end of the gathering. The other leaves are conjugate as fols 102+107, 103+106 and 104+105.

Umbrot

The manuscript is written in long lines with 30 to 43 lines to the page. The headings and rubrics are red, and the initials are mainly in red.

Ástand

There are lacunae in three places in the manuscript: After fol. 14 two leaves have been excised and the narrow strips of the leaves have remained in the spine. After fol. 68 one gathering is missing, and after fol. 76 at least one gathering of 8 leaves has been lost. Several leaves are damaged with tears or holes or they have an irregular shape. Some of the damage does not allow the lines to be of full length, but this damage is apparently older than the script.

The following leaves are torn: fols 2, 9-10, 15-28, 30, 32-35, 37-38, 40-43, 45-47, 49, 51, 53-60, 67-68, 70, 74-80, 82, 86, 88-89, 95, 97-100. On fol. 82 a corner has been torn off, and fols 19, 21 and 59 are only in half size, although a thin slip of the lower part is preserved at the spine. The lower part of these leaves was probably left blank as the trimming has not caused any loss of text. The bottom margin of fol. 63 is trimmed.

Several leaves are in a bad condition due to damp and wear, and they have become dark, faded or crinkled. The script was touched up in the seventeenth century with black ink where the writing had become particularly indistinct.

The restoration of the script on the following folios was done by Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson: fols 1v, 3r, 4r, 5r, 6v, 8v, 9r, 10r, 14r-v, 22r, 30v, 36r-52v, 72v, 77r, 78r, 103r, 104r. According to Árni Magnússon's account in AM 435 a 4to, fol. 113, the lögmaður Sigurður Björnsson told him that the rest of the touching up was done by himself and another lögmaður, Sigurður Jónsson. Sigurður Björnsson did the touching up on the following folios: 46v-47r, 48r, 49r-v, 50r and 52r-v. Sigurður Jónsson did the rest of the touching up in the section 36r-59r containing the Bretasögur.

Skrifarar og skrift

Hand 1 occurs on fols 1r-14v; the script is Carolingian-insular minuscule. The scribe was possibly Norwegian.

Hand 2 is found on fols 15r-18v:31. The script is early Gothic bookhand.

Hand 3 has only written 4 lines and occurs on fol. 18v:31-35. The script of this hand is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 4 occurs on fol. 19r and the script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 5 occurs on fol. 19v and the script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 6 is considered to be Icelandic and occurs on fols 20r-21r. The script of this hand is Icelandic Gothic bookhand.

Hand 7 occurs on fols 22r-34r, 36r-59r, 60r-80r:26, 99r:14-100r:2 and 101v-107v:5. The script is Gothic bookhand and the hand appears to be the same hand as in AM 371 4to and may be identified as Haukr Erlendsson's. The following picture - of fols 25v-26r from Trójumanna saga - is a sample of this hand.

Hand 8 occurs on fol. 35v and the script is early Gothic bookhand.

Hand 9 uses Icelandic othography and therefore the writer has been described as the first Icelandic secretary. This handlist is to be found on fols 80r:26-81r:7, 81r:9-85v and 87r:14-99r:14. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 10 occurs on fol. 81r:7-9. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 11 occurs on fol. 86r:1-7. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 12 occurs on fols 86r:7-87r:13. The script is Gothic bookhand.

This writer has been described as the second Icelandic secretary and the hand occurs on fols 100r:3-101r. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 14 occurs on fol. 107v:-5-42. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Skreytingar

At the beginning of new sections larger flourished initials in various colours occur.

On fol. 19r there is a drawing of Jerusalem including the most important buildings.

Spássíugreinar og aðrar viðbætur

There are several marginalia in this manuscript. Some consist of single letters and others are figurative. Fol. 8v, for example, has a drawing of a man's head wearing a hat.

  • At times sentences occur:
  • fol. 5v: Her er skrif andres isslendin.
  • fol. 19r: þeim go.
  • fol. 21r: amen med aund ok munn halla rei|knar hofud summu allir huad batar | þad mælgi ok mal.
  • fol. 21v: some runic letters, the beginning of Ave Maria aue maria gracia plena dominus and the statement: þessa bok a Teitr Palsson | skal urentr vera.

Among the scribblings on the originally blank fols 34v-35r there are statements about Christ, an alphabet in runes, a religious Latin verse and a drawing of a face.

Fols 6r, 7, 8r, 13v, 28v, 42v, 70r, 74v, 75r and 99r have corrections and references written in a contemporary hand.

Árni Magnússon, his archivist Jón Sigurðsson and others have at several places added chapter headings.

Band

In 1730, Jón Ólafsson described the manuscript as skinnalaus, or without any outer covering, and med hampreimum, which refers to the thongs of hemp across the spine to which the gatherings were fastened. The manuscript was not bound at this time. About a century later, in 1828, Möbius ( Edda Sæmundar hinns fróða III ) wrote that there was a wooden board belonging to the binding of the book on which there was a runic sign: In tabula lignea, ad ligaturam voluminis pertinene, incisus est character insignis, e Runis variis compositus, et priscum aliqvem libri possessorem indigitans. But when Kristian Kålund ( Katalog, I, 687 ) described AM 544 4to in 1889, this wooden board had disappeared.

AM 544 4to was bound in 1909 and again in 1967. The latter is also the manusript's present binding, a modern standard half-binding. The dimensions are: 248 mm x 183 mm x 72 mm.

Uppruni og ferill

Uppruni

Hauksbók was written in Iceland and Norway in the period 1290-1360. Most of the manuscript was written in Iceland by Haukr Erlendsson and other Icelandic scribes, while fols 1r-18v:31 were written in Norway. There has been some discussion whether fols 1-14 were written by a Norwegian scribe or a native of the Faroe Islands, cf. Kristensen 1925 . This is, however, difficult to answer, as medieval sources for the Faroese language are very scanty.

Kristian Kålund ( Katalog I s. 683 ) dated AM 544 4to to the beginning of the fourteenth century. Different parts of the manuscript were dated more precisely by Jón Helgason and Stefán Karlsson, respectively. The datings are as follows:

  • Fols 1r-18v:31: c. 1290-1334 (Jón Helgason, Hauksbók 1960 s. xx ).
  • Fol. 18v:31-35: c. 1350 (Stefán Karlsson pers. 1988)
  • Fol. 19v: the first half of the fourteenth century (Stefán Karlsson, pers. 1988)
  • Fols 22r-33v, 36r-49r:10, 53r:7-59r, 69r-107v: c. 1302-10 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 s. 119 )
  • Fol. 34r: c. 1302 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 s. 118 )
  • Fols 60r-68v: c. 1310 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 s. 119 )

Ferill

Hauksbók has been divided into 3 parts in the AM collection: AM 371 4to, AM 544 4to and AM 675 4to. Among other unknown scribes, the manuscript was written by Haukr Erlendsson. Letters from 28. janúar 1302 and 12. október 1310, written by Haukr Erlendsson himself, serve as evidence for this, as the script in the letters is similar to the main hand in Hauksbók. After Haukr Erlendsson's death in Norway in 1334, it is presumed that the codex passed to his successors in Iceland and was then passed on as an heirloom for about the next 300 years.

The next known owner, Bjarni Einarsson, states on fol. 59v: Biarni Einarsson a Hamr a þessa | bök med rettu og hefur hann lied mier hana | i bokaskiptum og skal hann fä hana | aptur þad firsta eg kann heim med skilum . Bjarni Einarsson who was a prosperous and notable man knew the county-sheriff (sýslumaður) Ari Magnússon of Ögur (1571-1652). In 1635, after Bjarni Einarsson had died, Ari Magnússon lent Hauksbók to Skagafjörður and the manuscript passed on to two men with antiquarian interests, the priest Arngrímur Jónsson (1568-1648), and then on to the farmer Björn Jónsson of Skarðsá (1574-1655). A third person, the Bishop of Hólar Þorlákur Skuláson (1597-1656), mentioned in his letter to Ole Worm (1588-1654) in Copenhagen in 1636 that Björn Jónsson had obtained the manuscript. From 1660 to 1670 Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson owned the manuscript and touched up the script.

In AM 435 a 4to, fols 111v-114v Árni Magnússon wrote: Ur landnama bok (α) og | Kristindoms Sỏgu, | fragmenta nokkur, | Geographica qvædam et physica. | Theologica qvædam ex Sermonibus Au-|gustini. | Varia, atqve inter ea Astronomica | qvædam. | Theologica qvædam, videntur esse | ur Adams bok. | Delineatio urbis Hierosolymorum. | Vỏluspa. | Trojomanna Saga. | De gemmis nonnulla. | Bretasỏgur. vïda ölæsar (β). | Vidræda likams og salar. [112v] aptan af Hemings Sỏgu, þar ï um lika | Lodin. | Saga Heidreks konungs ens vitra, vantar vid | endann. | aptan af Sỏgu Þorgeirs Havarssonar, | og Þormodar Kolbrunar skallds. | Algorismus (er de Arithmetica. | Saga Þorfinns Karlsefnes oc Snor-|ra Þorbrands sonar. | Saga Skallda Harallz konungs Harfagra | af nidium Ragnars Lodbrokar | fragment. | Lucidarium. | Bokin er i 4to [113v:13-17] β] I þessum Bretasỏgum er vida dreged i | stafena med nyu bleke, seiger Sigurdur | Biỏrnsson lỏgmadur þad giỏrt hafa | Sigurd Jonsson lỏgmann, sem i bokena | brukad hafe. [114r] Merlinus Spä in membra|nâ, i bok þad er bokenn sem eg nu | ä 4to sende Mag. | Bryniolfur Sigurde Jons | syne lỏgmanne, og bad | hann /: so sem vel lesande | mann /: ad draga i þä | öskiru stafena. Þad | giỏrde lỏgmadur, ad | samverkande Sigurde | Biỏrnssyne lỏgmanne, | sem þä ätte heima | i Einarsnese, post 1664. | enn adur enn hann vard landskri|fare. Ret. Sigurdar Biỏrns | sonar lỏgmanns 1707.

Aðföng

Árni Magnusson acquired AM 544 4to and AM 675 4to after the death of Brynjólfur Sveinsson, as the Bishop's manuscript collection came to Gaulverjabær. When Árni Magnússon wrote his catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts, now known as AM 435 a 4to, he described Hauksbók as a single codex.

Aðrar upplýsingar

Skráningarferill

Catalogued 17. febrúar 2000 by AWS.

Viðgerðarsaga

From 8 September to 20 October 1958 the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by R. Edelmann.

From 17 April to 4 June 1968, the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by R. Edelmann.

From 7 December 1977 to 26 May 1978 the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by Svend Gissel.

From 10 March 1992 to 15 March 1993 the manuscript was lent out to The National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet) for the exhibition Viking og Hvidekrist arranged by Nordisk Ministerråd.

The manuscript was restored and rebound by Birgitte Dall from 13 August 1966 to 23 February 1967.

Myndir af handritinu

  • Plate, plade 14, s.d.
  • 70 mm, 70mm 196, s.d. (supplementary photograph of fol. 100r).
  • Plate, plade 110, s.d. (supplementary photographs of fols 96v-97r).
  • Black and white prints from 11. ágúst 1999

Notaskrá

Titill: Antiquités Russes
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Rafn, C. C.
Höfundur: Bekken, Otto B.
Titill: Algorismus i Hauksbók i europeisk perspektiv
Titill: Fornaldar sögur Nordrlanda: Eptir gömlum handritum
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Rafn, Carl Christian
Titill: Fóstbrőðra saga, Nordiske Oldskrifter
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Konráð Gíslason
Umfang: XV
Titill: Grönlands historiske Mindesmærker
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Det kongelige nordiske Oldskrift-Selskab
Titill: Heilagra Manna Søgur: Fortællinger og Legender om hellige Mænd og Kvinder
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Unger, C. R.
Umfang: I-II
Höfundur: Jón Helgason
Titill: , Til Hauksbóks historie i det 17. århundrede
Umfang: s. 1-48
Titill: Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamling
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Kålund, Kristian
Titill: , Hauksbók: the Arna-Magnæan Manuscripts 371, 4to, 544, 4to, and 675 4to
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Munksgaard, Ejnar
Umfang: V
Titill: Analecta norræna
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Möbius, Theodor
Titill: Norrøne Skrifter af sagnhistorisk Indhold, Hevararsaga og Heidreks
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Bugge, Sophus
Umfang: III
Höfundur: Perkins, Richard
Titill: The Furðustrandir of Eiríks saga rauða, Mediaeval Scandinavia
Umfang: IX
Höfundur: Reeves, Arthur M.
Titill: The Finding of Wineland the Good
Umfang: s. 104-121
Titill: Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Aevi
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Langebek, Jacobus
Umfang: I-VIII
Titill: Heiðreks saga: Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks konungs, STUAGNL
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Jón Helgason
Umfang: XLVIII
Titill: Fóstbræðra saga, STUAGNL, Íslendinga sögur
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Björn K. Þórólfsson
Umfang: XXVI
Titill: Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Finnur Jónsson
Höfundur: Stefán Karlsson
Titill: Aldur Hauksbókar, Fróðskaparrit
Umfang: XIII
Höfundur: Werlauff, E. C.
Titill: Symbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Aevi
Titill: Eddadigte, Völuspá, Hávamál
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Jón Helgason
Umfang: I
Titill: Hervararsaga
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Suhm, Peter Frederik
Titill: Hervarar Saga ok Heiðreks Konungs
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Petersen, N. M.
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