Skráningarfærsla handrits

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AM 45 fol.

Fríssbók ; Iceland, 1300-1325

Athugasemd

This early fourteenth-century manuscript, the so-called Fríssbók or Codex Frisianus derives its name from its first known owner, the nobleman Otte Friis of Astrup, and contains the sagas of the kings of Norway (konungasǫgur) up to Magnús saga Erlingssonar, albeit with the exception of Ólafs saga helga, and followed by Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (hins gamla).

AM 45 fol. is unusually well-preserved and represents an exceptionally beautiful saga manuscript, with an elegant script and florid and zoomorphic initials. The manuscript is furthermore remarkable for the fact that it is the only surviving medieval manuscript to contain the first third of Heimskringla, including the prologue. Images of AM 45 fol. can be found at manuscript.ku.dk, and the manuscript is one of the site’s digitised manuscripts.

Innihald

1 (1ra-83va)
Heimskringla
Notaskrá

Unger, Codex Frisianus s. 1-384

Ármann Jakobsson & Þórður Guðjónsson, MorkinskinnaVar.app. Fríssbók

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð
1.1 (1ra-b)
Prologus
Upphaf

A bok þessi let ek ríta fornar fra|sagnir vm hofðinngia þa er rikí | hafa haft a norðr londom

Niðurlag

eɴ kvðín þikkia mer sizt or stað frð. ef þꜹ ero rett | kveðin. ⁊ rꜹksamliga vpp tekin

Notaskrá

Konráð Gíslason, Um frum-parta íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld s. iv Fol. 1va:1-12

Efnisorð
1.2 (1va-7va:11)
Ynglinga saga
Titill í handriti

Her hefr vpp konvnga bok | eptir savgn ara prestz froða. | Oc héfr fyrst vm þriþivnga skipti | heimsins. En sidan fra avllum noregs konvngvm.

Upphaf

KRINGLA heímsíns su | er mannfolkit byɢvir er míog | vágskorin.

Niðurlag

ok milldgeðr markar drottíɴ.

Efnisorð
1.3 (7va:12-8va:27)
Hálfdanar saga svarta
Upphaf

Halfdan var þa vetr gamall | er faðir hans fell.

Niðurlag

ok ero þat allt kallaðir. halfdanar hagar.

Efnisorð
1.4 (8va:27-14rb:17)
Haralds saga hins hárfagra
Titill í handriti

her hefr vpp | sgu haralldz konvngs harfagra

Upphaf

Haralldr tok | konvng dóm eftir feðr síɴ.

Niðurlag

oll voro born eiriks friþ ok máɴ v.n

Efnisorð
1.5 (14rb:17-18vb:9)
Hákonar saga góða
Titill í handriti

hakon aðalsteins fostri til konvngs tekinn.

Upphaf

Hakon aþalsteins fostri var þa a englandi er haɴ | spvrði andlat haralldz konvngs foðvr sins.

Niðurlag

siti hakon | m heiðin goð morg er þioð of þiað.

Efnisorð
1.6 (18vb:9-21ra:20)
Haralds saga gráfeldar
Titill í handriti

Vpphaf svna | Eiriks ok Gvnhilldar.

Upphaf

Ejriks. seynir toko konvng | dóm i noregi.

Niðurlag

hallrit velldr hva-|ro hlp silldr egíls kpa.

Efnisorð
1.7 (21ra:21-37ra:16)
Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar
Upphaf

Astriþr het kona sv er átt hafði tryɢvi | konvngr Olafsson.

Niðurlag

var eírikr jarl mi|og fyrir þeim bræðrom vm foʀ rað oll.

Notaskrá

Konráð Gíslason, Um frum-parta íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld s. iv Fol. 37ra:13-16

Athugasemd

Between the end of this saga and the beginning of the next is written her skal iɴ koma saga | Olafs konvngs hins helga.

Efnisorð
1.8 (37ra:19-41vb:24)
Magnús saga góða
Titill í handriti

Vpp haf sogv magnus | konvngs híns goða. er hann kom stan or gorðum fra Jarizleifz konvngs.

Upphaf

MAgnus olafs son byriadi ferð sína | eftir jolin stan af holmgarði o|fan til al deígío borgar.

Niðurlag

ok hallda ek þesso riki er gvð hefir mer gefit til forraða.

Notaskrá

Konráð Gíslason, Um frum-parta íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld s. iv-v Fol. 37ra:19-28

Efnisorð
1.9 (41vb:24-54vb)
Haralds saga harðráða
Titill í handriti

Vpphaf | Savgv haralldz konvngs Sigvrðar sonar

Upphaf

Haralldr son | sigvrþar konvngs sýr. broðir Olafs konvngs | híns helga sammæðri

Niðurlag

voro þeir siðan | allir m konvngi ok fellu m honom a englanði

Efnisorð
1.10 (55va-56va:18)
Ólafs saga kyrra
Upphaf

OLafr var eíɴ konvngr yfir noregi eftir andlat | Magnus konvngs broðvr sins.

Niðurlag

þa | hafði hann konvngr verit .ví. vetr ok xx.

Efnisorð
1.11 (56va:18-60va:12)
Magnús saga berfœtts
Titill í handriti

Vpphaf Magnus konvngs berfætz.

Upphaf

Magnus olafs son var tekiɴ til konvngs str i landit.

Niðurlag

Magnus konvngr var nær .xxx. at alldri er hann fell.

Efnisorð
1.12 (60va:13-66vb:17)
Saga Sigurðar, Eysteins ok Ólafs
Upphaf

Eftir fall Magnus konvngs berfætz. | toko synir hans konvng dom i noregi.

Niðurlag

var þa bæði ár ok friðr.

Efnisorð
1.13 (66vb:17-69va:38)
Magnús saga blinda ok Haralds gilla
Titill í handriti

vpphaf | Magnus Sigvrðarsúnar.

Upphaf

Magnus son Sigvrðar konvngs var | tekiɴ til konvngs i oslu yfir land allt sva sem | alþyða hafði svarít Sigvurði konvngi.

Niðurlag

haralldr konvngr var allra manna mill|daztr af fe við víni sina.

Efnisorð
1.14 (69va:38-73ra:5)
Sigurðar saga slembidjákns
Titill í handriti

Vpphaf Sigurþar | slembidiacns ok skirslvr til faðernis ser.

Upphaf

Siɢurðr het maðr er vpp fæddiz i noregi.

Niðurlag

loðín | sprvð færðo þeir til tvnsbergs eɴ aɴat liðít grofo þeir þar.

Athugasemd

This item combines material from the second half of the previous saga (Magnús saga blinda ok Haralds gilla) and the first half of the following one (Haraldssonar saga), augmented with a good deal of material from Morkinskinna (GKS 1009 fol.); its presentation in the manuscript does not suggest that it is to be regarded as saga in its own right, but it is nevertheless printed as such in Unger's edition.

Efnisorð
1.15 (73ra:6-75rb:19)
Saga Inga ok brœðra hans
Titill í handriti

Eysteinn haralldzson com vestan.

Upphaf

Siɢvrðr ok Jngi hofðo þa raðit | .vi. vetr noregi.

Niðurlag

sið af sli-|kom raðom symon skalpr of híalpaz.

Efnisorð
1.16 (75rb:19-78rb:9)
Hákonar saga herðibreiðs
Titill í handriti

Vpphaf hakonar konvngs Sigvrðar sonar

Upphaf

Hakon son Sigvrðar konvngs var tekíɴ til hofþingia | yfir flock þaɴ er aðr hafði fylgt. Eysteini konvngi.

Niðurlag

seɴdi hon maɴ orð til biorɢyniar erlingi skacka bonda sinom þ at hann skylldi | alldri trva þeim.

Efnisorð
1.17 (78rb:9-83va)
Magnús saga Erlingssonar
Upphaf

SJðan er erlingr fretti | þetta. þa gerþi hann sva.

Niðurlag

ok hann mvndi verþa þvi meírí hermaðr eɴ jarl sem | haɴ var yngrí.

Notaskrá

Konráð Gíslason, Um frum-parta íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld s. v Fol. 83va:15-21

Efnisorð
2 (84ra-124rb)
Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar
Höfundur

Sturla Þórðarson (1214-84)

Upphaf

A dgom Innocentij pava þess | er híɴ þriþi var m þvi nafní | i postvligo sætí.

Niðurlag

er sva marga nytsamliga luti hefir eftir síg | leiíða sem þessi híɴ signaði herra hakon konvngr.

Notaskrá

Unger, Codex Frisianus s. 387-583

Fornmanna sögur IX s. 229-535; X s. 1-154

Konráð Gíslason, Um frum-parta íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld s. vi Fols 84ra:1-12, 124rb:33-39

Baktitill

lykr her s-|guɴi

Tungumál textans
norræna
Efnisorð

Lýsing á handriti

Blaðefni

Parchment.

Blaðfjöldi
124. Fols 55r and 124v are blank. 310 mm x 240 mm.
Tölusetning blaða

Foliated by Kålund in red ink on the recto pages. The columns of fols 1r-83v are numbered 1-331.

Umbrot

Written in two columns with 37 to 40 lines per column. All chapters begin with coloured initials, and each saga or important portion begins with a large ornamented initial.

The headings, which are red, are filled in after the text was written; the space left for them is sometimes too small and a few letters of the heading are separated from the rest of the text and are written in the open space between the columns.

Ástand

The manuscript is in good condition, but on some leaves there are tears and holes.

Skrifarar og skrift

With the exception of three columns, the text was written by a professional Icelandic scribe whose hand is also known from a psalter, of which only two fragments now survive (AM 241 a I fol. and AM 249 p fol.) and also a manuscript of Sverris saga and Bǫglunga sǫgur, of which only two leaves survive (AM 325 VIII 4 c 4to).

There are three columns written in a contemporary but otherwise unknown hand, although also clearly Icelandic. This hand is found on fols 98ra-98va.

Skreytingar

Majuscles in red, dark red, blue and green.

There are 20 large yellow initials (spanning 6-8 lines) on a blue background, ornamented with red floral windings or knotwork. A handful of these initials are larger, spanning 13-16 lines. A notable example is the large initial K on fol. 1va, which marks the start of Ynglinga saga and in turn all of the sagas of the kings of Norway. Several of the initials have been reproduced in facsimile:

Several of the initials have been reproduced in facsimile:

On fol. 84ra we find a zoomorphic initial A incorporating a winged dragon biting its own neck. The initial is drawn in such a way that it resembles the large initials earlier in the manuscript: a yellow initial on a blue background with red knotwork. The dragon is yellow while its wings are red and blue. Cf. Halldór Hermannsson 1935Plate 7d and Liepe 2009 Fig. 22.

There are blue, red, green and dark red initials spanning 3 lines with palmette ornament in red, dark red and blue ink. An exception is the initial H on fol. 7va which marks the start of Hálfdanar saga svarta and spans 5 lines. The staves of these initials extend into the margins and as such cover a larger area.

Also noteworthy are the black versals found in a number of places in the manuscript and in particular on leaf 18v:31-38 where each stanza of Hákonarmál begins with such an initial.

Spássíugreinar og aðrar viðbætur

There are marginalia in Norse and Latin from the sixteenth century, and Icelandic from around 1700.

On fol. 77v there are two names written with runic letters.

A paper leaf containing notes from the eighteenth century is inserted at the beginning of the manuscript. In his catalogue Kålund calls it smudsbladet (the fly-leaf).

On this inserted leaf a note from the first half of the eighteenth century is written: It reads: Arnas Magnæus in Notis ad Aronem Polyhistorem | manu propria scriptis, in Collectione Locorum ex Scripto-|ribus veteribus Is-landis, in qvibus dictus Aro nominatur, | ita scribit verbum de verbo, ut seqvitur: | "Inscriptio Historia Norvegiæ Snorronis Sturlæi, in codice, | qvi olim fuit Ottonis Frisii, nunc verò; in meo Museo asser-|vatur, emptus ab hæredibus Jani Rosencrantzii. | her hefr upp Konunga Bók, eftir Saugn Ara prestz fróða." Hac tenus manu Arnæ Magnæi. Hic | autem ideo notatur, qvia hic seqventi columna tertiâ, pri-|mæ Lineæ, rubris literis pictæ, allegata hæc verba, totidem | vocibus exhibent; ut dubiari vix possit hanc ipsissimam | Membranam ab Arna Magnæo indigitatam esse; ut inde | cognosci possit, unde hunc Codicem nactus fuerit possessor: | qvoqve præsertim nomine eundem allegare conveniat; nec | enim alia dictæ Snorronis Historiæ manuscripta hanc asse-|runt Inscriptionem. | Iterum Arnas Magnæus in eadem locorum collectione | sua manu scripsit seqventia verba: In meo egregio Codice | Frisiano deest Vita Sancti Olavi; atqve inde nihil luminis ha-|beri potest. Hac ille. Allegaverat locum ex Snorronis Vita | Olavi Sancti, Capite 189. ubi Aro author laudatur. Verum | hic Codex non habet dictam Regis Vitam; itaqve certum est | hanc ipsam membranam esse, qvam nominat Codicem Frisianum, | ut inspectis aliis Manuscriptis Exemplaribus Historiæ Snorronis - | plenè patebit.

Band

Parchment binding (an old sea-charter). The binding measures: 315 mm x 248 mm x 65 mm. New spine from 1935 by Carl Lund.

Fylgigögn

A letter from 1865, together with a photographic copy of fol. 118r, enclosed in a green cardboard cover.

Uppruni og ferill

Uppruni

AM 45 fol. was possibly written in Iceland in the first quarter of the fourteenth century. It has been proposed that the manuscript has its provenance in the Barðastrandasýsla region (cf. Drechsler 2021 158). Louis-Jensen (e.g. Louis-Jensen 2015) however considers it debatable whether it was written in Iceland or by an Icelandic scribe in Norway.

Ferill

Nothing is known of the history of the manuscript until the middle of the sixteenth century when Laurents Hanssøn and Mattis Størssøn, both most possibly settled in Bergen, Norway, made use of it. From Norway it was transferred to Denmark before or around 1600. In Árni Magnússon catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts, AM 435 a 4to, fols 37v-38r, he reports that Otto Friis in Salling owned the book, and that it later came into the possession of Jens Rosencrantz. Furthermore, Árni informs the name Andreas Matthiæ Slangendorpius was written in a hand from c. 1600 on a fly-leaf that he had removed when the book was bound. An Anders Madsen Slangerup published a poem in Latin - Elegiacum de strenis antiqvorum - in Copenhagen in 1603.

Snorra Sturlusonar æfe Noregs konunga. | Hakonar Saga Hakonarsonar. | folio. Bokina hefr ättOtto | Friis i Salling. Sidan Etats-|Raad Jens Rosencrantz, og epter | hann eignadest eg bokina. a saurbladi framanvid bokina stöd, adr enn | eg hana umbinda liet: Andreas Matthiæ Slangendorpius . Virdest mier su hnd vera | hier um af anno 1600. eda kannske nockru | elldre.

Otte Friis was also in possession of AM 47 fol. and AM 243 bα fol.

Aðföng

Árni Magnússon acquired the manuscript in 1696, after the death of Jens Rosencrantz. It is said that Árni was obliged to buy the whole of Rosenkrantz's library in order to get hold of this manuscript (Finnur Jónsson 1930 1b s. 95 ).

Aðrar upplýsingar

Skráningarferill

Catalogued 10. júlí 1999 by AWS. Amended 7. janúar 2005 by JA.

Viðgerðarsaga

The manuscript was photographed in 1997 at the AMS.

The whole manuscript was photographed in 1981 at the AMS before restoration, and some leaves again during restoration.

AMS exhibition at the University of Copenhagen 8. nóvember 1963

National Museum in Brede, Denmark 16. júní 1967

Universitetets Oldsaksamling in Oslo, Norway 29. febrúar 1972

Nordiska Museet in Stockholm, Sweden 12. september 1972

Malmöhus museum in Malmö, Sweden 24. apríl 1973

Myndir af handritinu

  • 70 mm, Neg. 242, from 1981
  • Microfilm, Neg. 619, from 1981
  • Microfilm, Pos. 570, from 1981
  • Plate, 110, s.d.
  • Plate, 124, s.d.
  • Colour prints from maí 1981.
  • Sheet, s.d.

Notaskrá

Höfundur: Thorlacius, Skulo Theodiri
Titill: Antiqvitatum borealium observationes miscellaneæ
Titill: Antiquités Russes
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Rafn, C. C.
Höfundur: Finnur Jónsson
Titill: Árni Magnússons Levned og Skrifter
Höfundur: Louis-Jensen, Jonna
Titill: Kongesagastudier: Kompilationen Hulda-Hrokkinskinna,
Umfang: XXXII
Höfundur: Jørgensen, Jon Gunnar
Titill: , The lost vellum Kringla
Umfang: XLV
Titill: , Codex Frisianus (Sagas of the Kings of Norway)
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Halldór Hermannsson
Umfang: IV
Titill: Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages,
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Halldór Hermannsson
Umfang: VII
Titill: 66 håndskrifter fra Arne Magnussons samling
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Driscoll, Matthew James, Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir
Höfundur: Konráð Gíslason
Titill: Um frum-parta Íslenzkrar túngu í fornöld
Titill: Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamling
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Kålund, Kristian
Höfundur: Liepe, Lena
Titill: Snorrastofa, Studies in Icelandic Fourteenth Century Book Painting
Umfang: Rit 6
Titill: Sigurd Ranessöns Proces
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Storm, Gustav
Titill: Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sögur af Snorri Sturluson, STUAGNL
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Finnur Jónsson
Umfang: I-IV
Höfundur: Storm, Gustav
Titill: Snorre Sturlassöns Historieskrivning
Titill: , Morkinskinna
Ritstjóri / Útgefandi: Ármann Jakobsson, Þórður Ingi Guðjónsson
Umfang: XXIII-XXIV

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