Handrit.is
 

Manuscript Detail

AM 226 fol.

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Stjórn etc.; Iceland, 1350-1399

LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURLLATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURL

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Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Magnúss Þórhallsson 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe 
More Details
Name
Numidia 
More Details
Name
Þórður Þorláksson 
Birth
14 September 1637 
Death
16 March 1697 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Owner; Poet; Translator 
More Details
Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details
Name
Stefán Karlsson 
Birth
02 December 1928 
Death
02 May 2006 
Occupation
Scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Kirby, Ian J. 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Wolf, Kirsten 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Gísli Þórðarson 
Birth
1545 
Death
1619 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner; Marginal 
More Details
Name
Magnús Björnsson 
Birth
1595 
Death
06 December 1662 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner; Poet 
More Details
Name
Björn Magnússon 
Birth
1623 
Death
1697 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner; Author 
More Details
Name
Eggert Björnsson 
Birth
1612 
Death
14 June 1681 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Gísli Magnússon ; Vísi-Gísli 
Birth
1621 
Death
04 June 1696 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Correspondent; Scribe; Author; Owner 
More Details
Name
Þorlákur Þórðarson 
Birth
02 May 1675 
Death
04 November 1697 
Occupation
Headmaster 
Roles
Owner; Author 
More Details
Name
Brynjólfur Thorlacius 
Birth
28 September 1681 
Death
01 November 1762 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner; Poet; Author 
More Details
Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
More Details
Name
Hansen, Anne Mette 
Birth
30 September 1959 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
More Details
Name
Dall, Birgitte 
Birth
1912 
Death
1989 
Occupation
Book conservator 
Roles
Binder 
More Details
Name
Oslo 
More Details
Name
Reykjavík 
County
Gullbringusýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
More Details

Contents

1(1va-110ra:1)
Stjórn
Incipit

Almattigr gud verandi satt | lios. huerr er liosit elskar | ok gerir alla hluti med liosi by|riandi rettliga. ok uel v|idr kięmiliga. heímsíns | skapan ok smið. af liosí|nu. á fyrsta degi

Explicit

“Hann setti joachím hæra | enn huern aɴnan sinn undir konung. er uar i babilon. ok fæddi hann i sinni hall af sealfs sins bordi allt til dauda dags.”

Bibliography

Unger, Stjórn

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords
2(110ra:2-129ra:31)
Rómverja sǫgur
Rubric

“her byriaz | vpp romuería sogur af Massimissa konungi”

Incipit

Sva segir sebastíus i sinni frasogn. Ek mun þær orrostor rit|a. er romueriar heldu imoti jugurtha konungi af numidia.

Explicit

“ok er þat froðra manna so?gn ok ?ra tala at þa væri liðít fra | upphafi heímsíns m ok dcccclx ok ij ar Ok lykr | þar nu ʀomueria so?gum”

Bibliography

Konráð Gíslason, Fire og fyrretyve Prøver p. 108-252

Language of Text

Icelandic

3(129ra:31-146vb:27)
Alexanders saga
Rubric

“her hefr vpp sogu Alexandro | magno. af Darius konungi capitulum

Incipit

Daríus hefir konungr heitít. er. ʀeð fyrirí | serklandi. Hann var agietr. konungr. ok i þeim lu|ta heimsins er asia heitir

Explicit

“þar voru til higatburdar vars herra Iesu Christi cc. ix. tigir ok ix vetr.”

Language of Text

Icelandic

4(146vb:28-158rb)
Gyðinga saga
Incipit

Alexandr hinn ʀiiki | ok hinn mikli konungr. þa er hann hafdi sigrat ok | undir sik lagt allar þiodir iheiminum | sem fyrr var ʀitat.

Explicit

“Nu lẏkr þar þessi sogu. ok hafi þeir þock er hlẏddu. enn sa giall|di æigi sem las edr skrifadi.”

“Nu lẏkr þar þessi so?gu. ok hafi þeir þock er hlẏddu. enn sa giall|di æigi sem las edr skrifadi.”

Language of Text

Icelandic

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
iii + 158 + ii. After the prologue on fol. 1rb as well as on fols 61vb and 69vb, half of the column is blank. 377 mm x 290 mm.
Foliation

Foliated 1-158 in the upper margin between the two columns by Kristian Kålund. On the verso of the first fly-leaf Kålund has noted: “158 bl. (+ 1 foran indklæbet, beskrevet papirblad) 12.02.1886”. The columns are numbered 2-638 on the upper right-hand corner of the recto pages.

Condition

The codex is well preserved but not complete; a leaf is missing between fols 98 and 99 and between fols 99 and 100. In places the manuscript has been trimmed to such an extent that the text has suffered.

Layout

Written in two columns of 47 to 48 lines each. Rubrics in red.

Script

Apart from fols 62 to 69, which were inserted in the fifteenth or early sixteenth century, and the first four and a half lines of fol. 158rb, the codex is written in Icelandic Gothic bookhand by one scribe.

Decoration

There are a number of historiated initials illustrating the texts. Matthías Þórðarson (Islands middelalderkunst p. 340) suggests that the illuminations are by the priest Magnús Þórhallsson, who illuminated Flateyarbók and possibly also AM 343 fol. and AM 347 fol. Selma Jónsdóttir (Lýsingar i Stjórnar-handriti p. 14) believes that — Skarðsbók, AM 233a fol., the sagas of bishops in Stock. Perg. fol. no. 5 A (and other manuscripts) were all illuminated in the same place and probably by the same artist.

  • Fol. 1va:1-8 (Genesis 1): Yellow initial A covering 11 lines in a red frame, on a blue lattice background. Majestas Domini (Christ in Majesty) on a blue background surrounded by a mandorla. Christ is sitting on a rainbow with three fingers on his right hand uplifted whilst holding an orb in his left hand. He is dressed in a red robe and has a halo. In the spandrels are four angels holding on to the mandorla which on two sides is linked to the initial by rings. The border panel extends down from the initial and consists of a chain of nondescripts; the top and bottom borders comprise branches with greenery and animals. The bottom extension shows a hunting scene where an archer is taking aim at a bird in a tree. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 24.
  • Fol. 12rb:1-8 (Genesis 6); Yellow initial S on a dark red background. Noah wearing a green coat holding an axe in both hands is building the ark. Red and green extensions consisting of branches. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 2b.
  • Fol. 22rb:36-46 (Genesis 11); Yellow initial T on a blue lattice background. Abraham and Isaac are on their way to the sacrifice. Abraham is starting out from a green house with gate and embrasure, spear in hand and followed by his son Isaac. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 2a.
  • Fol. 30va:28-33 (Genesis 25); Green and red initial A on a blue background. A priest in yellow chasuble and green gown is reading a book on a lectern, with his fingers on the book. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 25a.
  • Fol. 34va:28-33 (Genesis 25); Yellow initial N. Dark red background. Isaac, eyes closed, is blessing Jacob with his left hand touching Jacob's head, the three first fingers of the right hand are uplifted in blessing. Rebecca has her left hand on Jacob's head, her right hand on his right shoulder. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 2c.
  • Fol. 70ra:1-8 (Joshua 1); Yellow initial E. God talks to Joshua. God wearing a red coat is sitting on the middle bar of the initial, and Joshua, dressed in a green coat, red hat and red socks in light shoes, is lying at his feet. The top border has been almost entirely cut off, but we can see a red branch with foliage (oak leaves). On this a centaur is shooting at a bird. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 29a.
  • Fol. 72rb:13-16 (Judges 1); A space covering the equvalent of 8 lines is left empty for an initial E to be inserted later. There is, however, a red and green bar-border with branches and leaves top and bottom.
  • Fol. 79rb:21-29 (1 Samuel 1); Yellow initial H in a blue frame and on a red background. Saul dressed in a blue gown and a red cloak is sitting on a throne with dragon-heads. He holds a sword in his right hand and a shield with a flower motif in his left hand. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 3b.
  • Fol. 81va:31-39 (1 Samuel 10); Yellow initial S on a dark red background. Samuel is anointing Saul. The borders have branches and foliage, a bird and fabulous animals (one of which has a human face). Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 26.
  • Fol. 88ra:1-9 (2 Samuel 1); Yellow initial A entwined in red and green acanthus leaves and on a blue background. King David is playing the harp, sitting on a throne with a gaping dragon head, wearing a crown and a flowing red robe over a green kirtle. The extension forms a border of acanthus leaves ending in a fabulous animal. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 25b.
  • Fol. 96va:7-14 (1 Kings 2); Yellow initial A on a red background. King Solomon is depicted sitting on his throne with a big sceptre in his right hand. In front of him is standing a woman, possibly his mother Bathsheba, with her hands in a pleading position. Two extensions ending in branches and fabulous animals, one animal in the top extension and two in the bottom. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 27.
  • Fol. 110ra:17-25 (beginning of Rómverja sögur); A yellow historiated initial M on a dark red background. In the left arch of the initial we see King Massinissa of Numidia, sword in his right hand, his left hand pointing at a man, who is standing in the right arch, carrying a cup. The top border has been excised. The lower border comprises oak leaves and fabulous animals. We can see a griffin and a unicorn with its young. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 28.
  • Fol. 129ra:32-40 (beginning of Alexanders saga); A yellow initial D on a dark red lattice frame on a blue background. King Darius, sceptre in his right hand, is sitting on a throne with dragon-heads. The bottom border with leaves and two four-legged animals (wolves? sheepdog and fox?) and a bird of prey. Between the extension and column b there is a sheep bleeding from its throat. Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages Plate 29b.

    Initials with human faces and a single manicule:
  • Fol. 7vb:40-42 (Genesis 3, — The Fall): Green initial H. The extension has flourishing in red ink. Inside the H the face of a bearded man with a drooping mouth is found (possibly Adam).
  • Fol. 35vb:12-14 (Genesis 27): Blue initial Þ. The extension has flourishing in red ink. Inside the Þ there is a blessing hand with extended index and second finger.
  • Fol. 97rb:7-9 (1 Kings 3, — The Wisdom of Solomon): Green initial A. The extension has flourishing in red ink. Inside the A is the face of an angry woman wearing headgear.
    Initials with fabulous animals, all with Romanesque windings:
  • Fol. 4va:28-30: Red initial A contains a two-legged fabulous animal. The space within the initial is decorated with a dark blue flourishing on a dark blue lattice.
  • Fol. 11ra:3-6: Green initial N contains four-legged fabulous animal on a blue background. Flourishing in red and blue.
  • Fol. 15ra:15-18: Blue, red and green A contains two two-legged fabulous animals.
  • Fol. 25va:24-26: Red O contains a fabulous animal with a human face on a green background.
  • Fol. 37va:7-9: Dark red initial O conatains a four-legged animal (a wolf?).
  • Fol. 44ra:19-21: Dark red initial A contains a four-legged fabulous animal on a green background.
  • Fol. 55ra:5-7: Red initial H contains a winged fabulous animal on a blue background.
  • Fol. 57va:41-43: Dark red initial F conatians a two-legged fabulous animal on a green background.
  • Fol. 61ra:19-21: Blue initial Þ contains a four-legged animal (a sheep?) on a green background.
  • Fol. 78rb:4-8: Blue initial S contains two fabulous animals on a green background, one for each part of the S. The extension has flourishing in red ink.
  • Fol. 92vb:22-24: Green initial F contains a two-legged fabulous animal on a blue background.
  • Fol. 93va:13-16: Red initial A contains a winged fabulous animal on a green background.
  • Fol. 96ra:14-16: Red initial B contains a two-legged fabulous animal (a two-legged ram?) on a green background.
  • Fol. 108vb:39-42: Blue initial N decorated with yellow leaves contains a two-legged fabulous animal with a human face wearing a yellow pointed hood with dark red lining.
  • Fol. 116ra:43-47: Blue and green initial N on a green background that is divided into three triangular sections, with a two-legged fabulous animals in each one. The middle animal has wings.
  • Fol. 128rb:15-18: Dark red initial N contains a fabulous beast with wings on its head depicted on a green background.
  • Fol. 133va:11-14: Initial N contains a sheep (?) that is being attacked by an eagle.
  • Fol. 137vb:35-38: Dark red initial A contains a two-legged fabulous animal with a human face and pointed hood on a green background.
  • Fol. 143ra:24-27: Dark red initial P contains two two-legged fabulous animals wrapped in the same piece of cloth.
  • Fol. 151va:20-25: Red and blue initial A divided into 3 sections. In the bottom section two arches can be seen, but as the green ink has faded, the picture cannot be made out. The middle section consists of red flourishing and foliage. The upper section contains two arches with a two-legged fabulous animal in each on a dark blue lattice background.

Where there are no other initials, every chapter in the mansucript has (dark) red, (dark) blue or green Romanesque initials, flourished or with leaves. They all have extensions. All of these lesser initials cover 3 to 4 lines. Generally,

  • green initials have red flourishing,
  • blue initials have red and/or dark blue flourishing,
  • red initials have (dark) blue flourishing,
  • dark red initials have red and/or dark blue flourishing.
The later addition, fols 62-69, however, has no initials.

Additions

There are few marginal notes. Fol. 158v was originally blank, but some scribblings have been added at a later date. Fol. 95r (top margin) contains a name written in runes: “ᚯᚦᚦᚾᛁ ᛒᛂᚾᛂᚦᛁᛎᛐᛋ ᚦᚯᛐᛐᛂᚱ” (= øþþni beneþicts þøtter, i.e. Auðni Benediktsdóttir).

Binding

Leather blind tooled binding. 390 mm x 300 mm x 85 mm.

The decoration consists of a blind tooling with several frames.

Accompanying Material

There is a slip in Thorlacius' hand saying: “Syne Mynum Thorlake Þordarsyne | Gief eg Undskrifadur Þessa Bok | Hvoria Mier gaf Mÿnn Eruverdugur | Konu Fader Gisle Magnusson / og | fieck hann hana ad Erfdum epter synn | fodur Magnus Biornsson Løgmann, | So Bokenn er Vel under komen, og | Vafalaus ad mÿnu vïte. Tilskil eg ad | Thorlakur Þordarson frænde mÿnn fare | vel med þessa bok, og Liäe hana Brodur | sÿnum Brinjolfe Þordarsine./ | Skalhollte þann 2 Decembris | Anno 1689. Þordur Thorlaksson mp”.

Below this, Árni Magnússon has added: “Anno 1708. sidarst i Majo eignadist eg underskrifadur | þessa bok af Monsieur Brynjolfe Þordarsyne | Arne Magnusson.”

History

Origin

Written in Iceland. Kristian Kålund dated the manuscript to the last part of the fourteenth century, except from the later inserted leaves (fols 62-69), which he dated the fifteenth century (Katalog vol. I p. 182).

More recent research divides the manuscript in three different parts which need to be dated separately:

Provenance

The history of the manuscript cannot be traced with certainty further back than to the lögmaður Gísli Þórðarson (c. 1545-1619), its first documented owner. On fol. 158v there is a note, nearly entirely erased, stating: “Gÿslle Þordar son á þesa bok.”

How the codex was passed from Gísli to its next owners, a family in Munkaþverá, cannot be determined with certainty. Wolf (ibid.) assumes that Gísli passed the codex on to his son-in-law, Magnús Björnsson (c. 1595-1662), lögmaður in Munkaþverá. Árni Magnússon, however, writes in AM 435 a 4to, fol. 3v, that in his opinion the manuscript was passed on to Magnús' son, Björn Magnússon (1623-97), by Eggert Biörnsson of Skarð (1612-81): “Magnus Björnsson ætladi Biörn | Magnusson (broder Gisla) bokina fein-|ged hafa af Eggert Biörnssyne ä | Skarde”.

According to the slip written by Bishop Þórður Þorláksson (Thorlacius) (1637-97) and fol. 3v in Árni Magnússon's catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts (AM 435 a 4to), the manuscript then belonged to the Munkaþverá family, the lögmaður Magnús Björnsson (1595-1662) and his two sons, Gísli (1621-96) and Björn (1623-97), both of whom were sheriffs ( sýslumenn).

Gísli then gave the manuscript to his son-in-law, Thorlacius, who gave it to his son, Þorlákur Þórðarson (1675-97). Þorlákur lent it to his brother Brynjólfur Þórðarson (1681-1762), who in turn gave it to Árni Magnússon.

In AM 435 a 4to, fols 1v-3v, Árni Magnússon writes: “Historia Biblica veteris Testamenti, | vulgò Stiorn. ä 109. blodum. Endast | eins og 4tus liber Regum. Titellenn er | þesse: Her hefr upp prologum epter fyrir -|sogn virduligs herra Haconar konungs. | Romveria Sogur ä 19. blo;dum. Er | 1°. Salustii bellum Jugurthinum. | 2°. Fra vidskiptum Syllæ og Marii. | 3°. Salustii bellum Catilinarium. | 4°. Lucani pharsalia med stuttre Con-|tinuatione historiæ Romanæ aptan-|vid. Sc: Bello Cæsaris cum Juba Re-|ge: Morte Catonis: Nece Julii Cæsaris: | Bellis Antonii et Augusti: Regno Au-|gusti: og endast so þetta med Nati-|vitate Christi. | Alexandri Magni Saga ä 18. blodum. Historia Judaica ä 11 1/2 blodum. Byr-|iazt eins og liber 1-us Machabæorum, | og innehelldur somu historiu sem liber | primus, þö langtum fyllre, og sumstad-|ar odruvïs. Continuerar sidan res Ari-|stobuli og epterfylgiande konunga | alika og Josephus hefur inn til finem | libri xvij. Antiqvitatt. Judaicc. enn | miklu brevius. | þä byriast med nyium title. | Her hefr upp oc segir fra Tirus konungi oc | af pilato Syni hans. Er um upp-|runa Pilati, hans promotion og enda-|lykt. Item um Judæ Ischariotæ fæ-|ding og uppelde. allra sidarst hier i | stendur: þessa bok færdi hinn hei-|lage Jeronimus prestr or ebresku mali | ok i latinu. enn or Latinu oc i | Norrænu Sneri brandr prestr Jonsson er sidan var biskup at Holum. ok sva | Alexandro Magno eptir bodi virduligs | herra herra Magnusar konungs son-|ar Hakonar konungs gamla. | bokin er i folio meir enn regali. | Eg eignadizt hana 1708. af Monsenieur Bryn-|iolfe Þordarsyne ä Hlidarenda. hann erf-|de hana epter fodur sinn. Mag. Þordur | feck hana af Gisla Magnussyne. Gisle | epter fodur sinn Magnus Biornsson log-|mann. Magnus Biornsson ætladi Biorn | Magnusson (broder Gisla) bokina fein-|ged hafa af Eggert Biornssyne ä | Skarde.”

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon acquired the manuscript from Brynjólfur Þórðarson in 1708.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 30 June 2002 by EW-J and AMH.

Custodial History

The manuscript had been restored some time before Birgitte Dall started as restorer at The Arnamagnæan Collection, as can be seen from some of the glassine and parchment repairs.

28 July 1975-1 August 1975: 2 leaves were smoothed by Birgitte Dall.

11 January 1998-15 May 1999: the manuscript was restored again.

13 May 1996-28 September 1996: lent out to The University Library (Universitetsbiblioteket) in Oslo for a Bible exhibition.

4 January 1970-13 July 1970: lent out to The University Library of Iceland (Háskólabókasafn) in Reykjavík for use by Ian J. Kirby.

Surrogates

70 mm 92s.d.Supplements before the manuscript was restored 70 mm 2s.d.The entire manuscript before it was restored diapositive AM 226 fol. March 1984 diapositive AM 226 fol. 22 April 1998 Colour photographs of initials on 22v, 30v, 34v, 70r, 79r, 81v, 88r and 96v. diapositive AM 226 fol. 25 November 1998 4x5" colour diapositive. Fols 1r-v, 11r, 12r-v, 15r, 18r, 20r, 22r, 25r, 27r-v, 30v, 34v, 51r, 55r, 61v-62r, 69v-70r, 72r, 78r, 81v, 88r, 96v, 108v, 109v-110r, 129r, 146v, 151v, 156r, 158v. Detail of initial A on fol. 167r. b/w prints AM 226 fol. July 1964.

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
Stjórn: Gammelnorsk Bibelhistorie fra Verdens Skabelse til det babyloniske Fangenskabed. C. R. Unger
Fire og Fyrretyve for en stor Deel forhen utrykte Prøver af oldnordisk Sprog og Litteratured. Konráð Gíslasonp. 108-252
Alexanders saga: Norsk Bearbejdelse fra trettende Aarhundrede af Philip Gautiers latinske Digt Alexandreised. C. R. Unger
Alexanders sagaed. Finnur Jónsson
Gyðinga saga: En bearbejdelse fra midten af det 13 Årh. ved Brandr Jónsson, STUAGNLed. Guðmundur Þorláksson1881; VI
Gyðinga saga, ed. Kirsten Wolf1995; XLII
Matthías Þórðarsson“Islands middelalderkunst”, Nordisk kultur1931; XXVII: p. 324-349
Selma JónsdóttirLýsingar i Stjórnar-handritip. 14
Icelandic Illuminated Manuscripts of the Middle Ages, ed. Halldór Hermannsson1935; VII
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian KålundI: p. 182
Sagas of Icelandic Bishops: Fragments of Eight Manuscripts, Early Icelandic Manuscripts in Facsimileed. Stefán Karlsson1967; VII
Ian J. KirbyBible Translation in Old Norsep. 56
1984
1998
1998
1964
Harry Fett“Miniatyrer fra islandske haandskrifter”, Bergens Museums Aarbog1910; 7: p. 3-40
Fett, HarryNoregs Malerkunst i Middelalderen, 1917;
Peter Hallberg“Några språkdrag i Alexanders saga och Gyðinga saga - med en utblick på”, Stofnun Árna Magnússonar á Íslandi1977; p. 234-250
Alexanders saga: The Arna-Magnæan Manuscript 519a, 4to, ed. Jón Helgason1966; VII
Konráð GíslasonUm frum-parta Íslenzkrar túngu í fornöldp. ix-xi
Kristian KålundPalæografisk Atlas: Oldnorsk-islandsk Afdelingp. xi
Liepe LenaStudies in Icelandic Fourteenth Century Book Painting, Snorrastofa2009; Rit 6
Didrik Arup SeipPalæografi, B: Norge og Island, Nordisk Kultur1954; XXVIII:B
Selma Jónsdóttir“Gjafaramynd í Íslenzku handriti”, Árbók hins Íslenzka fornleifafélags1965; p. 5-19
Stefán Karlsson“Om norvagismer i islandske håndskrifter”, 1978; p. 87-101
Gustav Storm“De norsk-islandske Bibeloversættelser fra 13de og 14de Aarhundrede og Biskop Brandr Jónsson”, Arkiv för nordisk filologi1885; III: p. 244-256
Postola sögur: legendariske Fortællinger om Apostlernes Liv deres Kamp for Kristendommens Udbredelse samt deres Martyrdøded. C. R. Ungerp. xii, xvii
Würth, StefanieDer "Antikenroman" in der isländischen Literatur des Mittelalters. Eine Untersuchung zur Übersetzung und Rezeption lateinischer Literatur im Norden, Beiträge zur nordischen Philologie1998; Bd. 26
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