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Manuscript Detail

AM 81 a fol.

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Saga Manuscript; Iceland, 1450-1475

Name
Jón Sigurðsson 
Birth
17 June 1811 
Death
07 December 1879 
Occupation
Scholar; Archivist 
Roles
Scholar; Scribe; Author; Marginal; Owner; Donor; Correspondent; recipient 
More Details
LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH ACUTELATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH ACUTE

Special character shown similar to its original form.

COLON WITH MIDDLE COMMA POSITURACOLON WITH MIDDLE COMMA POSITURA

Special character shown similar to its original form.

Name
Arnór Jónsson ; Laga-Nóri 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Jón Helgason 
Birth
30 June 1899 
Death
19 January 1986 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Marginal 
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Name
Skálholt 
Parish
Biskupstungnahreppur 
County
Árnessýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Þórður Þorláksson 
Birth
14 September 1637 
Death
16 March 1697 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Owner; Poet; Translator 
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Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Öndverðarnes 1 
Parish
Grímsneshreppur 
County
Árnessýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Oddur Einarsson 
Birth
21 August 1559 
Death
28 December 1630 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Translator; recipient; Correspondent 
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Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details
Name
Jón Þorkelsson Vídalín 
Birth
21 March 1666 
Death
30 August 1720 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Scribe; Author; Correspondent; Marginal 
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Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
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Name
Westergaard-Nielsen, Christian 
Occupation
 
Roles
Author; Scholar 
More Details
Name
Aarhus 
Region
Jutland 
Country
Denmark 
More Details
Name
Holm-Olsen, Ludvig 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details

Contents

1(1ra-55vb:8)
Sverris saga
Incipit

HER byriar vpp sogu ok segir fra þeim tidenum

Explicit

ok hofdu Suiar jaʀll | brok lawsann.”

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords
2(55vb:8-64ra)
Bǫglunga sǫgurHákonar saga Sverrissonar, Guttorms ok IngaBǫglunga sǫgur
Incipit

ÞAT sama sumar er suerʀir kongr an | waríth ꜳdr war hꜳkon til kongs tekínn

Explicit

“Ro|um wer sem wer megum mest

Note

The text ends abruptly and the remains of fol. 64r is left blank, possibly because the source text had a lacuna.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords
3(64va-120vb)
Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar
Incipit

A daugum Jnnocencij paua, þess|er hinn þridi

Explicit

“eru fra uidskiptum | þeira jarls ok islendínga margar frasagnir þær er. oss þic|kír eigi naudsynlígt at ríta i þessa. fra sogv. En þo mun sumra getid uera sidar

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
120. 296 mm x 225 mm.
Foliation

Foliation by Jón Sigurðsson.

Collation

The manuscript consists of fifteen quires each of eight leaves. A sixteenth quire seem to be missing as the text ends abruptly on the verso-side of the last leaf.

Condition

The manuscript is fairly well preserved even though there are some defects. The text ends defectively and the parchment on f. 1r is badly worn with the consequence that some of the writing is illegible. This shows that the manuscript at some time was left unbound. The last page of the manuscript is, however, almost not worn at all even though the parchment in the inner bottom corners of the last two leaves are darkened due to damp.

Layout

Written in double columns; the lines per column very from 34 to 51 lines. In most of the manuscript the scribe has left blank spaces (two to three lines) for initials - except from ff. 73r-112v where some flourished majuscules have been added. The majuscules on ff. 31r, 36v, 74v, 76r, 77r, 80r and 116r are inhabited, displaying faces in their counters.

Script

The manuscript can be divided into three main sections, each written by one main hand (hand 1, hand 2 and hand 5) with minor passages written by other scribal hands. In this list, the hands of the minor passages are grouped within the passages of the main hands. This has been done to clarify which main scribe belongs to which section. Some of the scribal hands have a coarse handwriting and seem inexperienced while other have a consistent and elegant handwriting. In all probability, the manuscript was used as an exercise book at one of the educational centres of Iceland; a see or a monastery. It is often difficult to distinguish between the various scribes, especially when discerning between hands of minor passages. A future amendment of this interpretation will therefore be necessary.

Hand 1 wrote f. 1ra-64rb, Sverris saga and — Bǫglunga sǫgur. This scribal hand consistently writes 39 lines per column. It is characteristic for this scribe that he sometimes adds words below the text. This occur on ff. 8va: “et cetera walete”, 22rb: “liia cs my rhslzxg tybnymbs” and 28rb: “et cetera wal”.

Hand 1a wrote two different passages:

  • F. 11ra:30-34 from “mættí” to “gre |ptenum
  • F. 16ra:22-23 from “(bog)an” to “fyrr

Hand 1b wrote two different passages too:

  • F. 12va:36-39 from “ok” to “jsteínb”
  • F. 14rb:27: “aleid-swdr.”

Hand 1c wrote three different passages:

  • F. 43vb:35-39 from “þadan” to “merkí”
  • F. 62va:2-13 from “skíptu” to “vm
  • F. 63vb:1-5 from “mattu” to “sueít.”
Hand 1a, 1b and 1c are very similar and at some places it is unclear where one hand stops and the other starts. Holm-Olsen ( p. lx) suggest that hand 1a and 1b could be the same scribe and Knirk ( p. 205) is uncertain whether 1c is a new hand or identical with 1a or 1b.

Hand 2 wrote 64v-110r.In this part we find many smaller passages written by other hands too and the number of lines varies from, 34 to 42 lines per column. Generally a gathering starts and ends with 39 lines per column with only two exceptions; gathering 12 and 13 with 40 lines per column at the end of each gathering and gathering 14 with 38 lines per column at the beginning of the gathering.

Hand 2a wrote f. 66ra:28-32 from “Eru ver” to “er kongs”

Hand 2b wrote five different passages:

  • F. 82va:3-vb:26 from “varda” to “gestum”
  • Ff. 83va:21-84ra:22 from “oknefndu” to “afar koste”
  • Ff. 84vb:13-85ra:12 from “hakon kongr” to “kongenum”
  • All of f. 90v from “hann” to “boda”
  • F. 102ra:8-rb:38: “drapu” to “merkur”

Hand 2c wrote two different passages:

  • F. 84va:1-2 from “eíka bergs” to “oslo.”
  • F. 84va:12-23 from “segir” to “gardí”

Hand 2d wrote f. 92va:23-33 fra: “Um sumarit” to “ojafnad”

Hand 2e wrote f. 98va:28-32 from “ok virde” to “suaradi

Hand 2f wrote four different passages:

  • F. 106va:15-38 fra “var” to “vapna”
  • F. 107rb:6-14 fra “enn” to “manna
  • F. 108ra:23-37 fra “ok bad” to “vera”
  • F. 113va:4-11: “Hwsít” to “menn.

Hand 2g wrote f. 108va:7-22 from “sagdi” to “manna

Hand 2h wrote f. 109vb:8-11 from “vestra” to “bad hann”

Hand 2i wrote f. 109vb:11-17: “vera” to “lítli.”

Hand 2j wrote three passages of text:

  • F. 110rb:15-20 fra “SUnudagin” to “lidsmanna”
  • F. 114vb:1-30 fra “burdr” til to “fritt”
  • Ff. 114vb:34-115rb:46 from “lest a hestum” to “lid”

Hand 3 wrote f. 110va:1-11 from “NV” to “oslo”

Hand 4 wrote ff. 110va:11-111rb:37 from “Erl|íngr” til “foru

Hand 5 wrote ff. 111va-120vb, even though various minor hands occur here too. In this part of the manuscript the number of lines per column increases from 42 lines per column on f. 111va to 51 lines per column on f. 120va 120va (and 50 lines per column on f. 120vb).

Hand 5a wrote f. 116ra:13-26 from “HAkon” to “ritat”.

Hand 5b wrote f. 117vb:1-5 from “uoru” to “finna hann

Hand 5c wrote f. 118ra:31-39 from “ok bidu” to “lid.”

Hand 5d wrote f. 118rb:10-32 from “BArrtholomeus” to “hiallma:,

Hand 5e wrote f. 118vb:35-41 from “hakoni kongi” to “tyna”

Hand 5f wrote ff. 118vb:48-119ra:1 from “dvalldiz” to “Vikinna”

Hand 5g wrote four passages:

  • F. 119rb:33-47 fra “Ok” to “gullí”
  • F. 119vb:16-27 fro “hakon” to “konga
  • F. 120ra:23-49 fra “NV” to “kastel til
  • F. 120vb:28-36 fra “hakon” to “beítt”

Hand 5h wrote f. 120vb:1-5 from “sendingum” to “sumarid ok

Additions

In the margin of f. 35r the name “arnor” is found. The writing are large and uneven, like it was written by a child and it is followed by three unidentifiable letters. Two other names occur in the margin: “Sigurdur Magnusson” on f. 12r and “Bergsueirn | Grijmsson” on f. 64r. Many other marginalia are found but they are more or less indistinct. Drawings occur in the bottom margins of ff. 91r-93r, 95r and 96r and foliage in the bottom margins of ff. 115v and 116v-117r.

Binding

The manuscript is bound in a dark brown, almost black, parchment binding with a blind-stamped frame. The size of the binding is: 316 mm x 235 mm x 70 mm. The remains of two copper clasps are still attached to the binding. When it was bound it was given two parchment flyleaves at the front and the back, respectively. According to Jón Helgason ( p. 77) the manuscript was bound in Skálholt at the time Þórður Þorlákson was the bishop of Skálholt (1674-97). Other similar manuscript bindings from Skálholt with the same tooling include: AM 227 fol. (Stjórn), AM 351 fol. ( — Skálholtsbók eldri) AM 354 fol. ( — Skálholtsbók yngri) and Stock. Papp. 4to nr 9. The blind-stamped framing motive is known from Germany since 1545.

History

Origin

Written in Iceland. Kålund (Katalog) dated the manuscript to the fifteenth century, whereas Holm-Olsen ( p. xi, xcix) dated it more precisely to the third quarter of the fifteenth century.

Provenance

Arnór Jónsson of Öndverðanes gave the manuscript to the cathedral of Skálholt at the beginning of the seventeenth century and prior to that it belonged to the bishop Oddur Einarsson and his children. AM 416 a 4to, which was commissioned by Oddur Einarsson in 1612, is a list of books belonging to Skálholt at that time. On f. 7r it says: “Arnor Jonsßon j Øndverda|nese hefur gefid bornunum | hier ejna gamla Bok þar | er a Suerrers saga og | nockud flejra. han liede | mier hana fyrst enn gaf mier | hana sejrnna og sagde ad | bornen mætte ejga hana”.

On f. 57v in Árni Magnússon’s catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts, AM 435a 4to, he confirms that the manuscript belonged to the cathedral of Skálholt: “Sverris Saga. | Hakonar Saga Sverris sonar etc. | Hakonar Saga Hakonar sonar. | Bokin er in folio, illa skrifud og ecki | riett. Vantar nockud sidarst. | hefur fyrrum tilheyrt Skalholltz kirkiu”.

In AM 79 fol., containing a transcript of Sverris saga from c. 1700, an AM-slip with a list of all the manuscripts in which the saga occur, the manuscript is described thus (no 7, f. 1r-v of the slip): “7. Codex meus, olim (ut videtur) | Ecclesiæ Scalholtensis in Islandiâ. nulli priorum comparan|dus, nec magnæ ætatis, nec | bonitate præstans.”

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon acquired the codex from Jón Vídalín in 1699. A note on the acquisition of AM 81 a fol. together with other smanuscripts is found in AM 435a 4to, f. 190r: “ỏll þesse | volumina komu sidan til | skila, og sende Mag. Jon | mier þau 1699.”

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 10 February 2000 by EW-J.

Custodial History

Lent to Christian Westergaard-Nielsen from Vestnordisk Institut in Aarhus 22 April 1980-23 March 1984.

Lent to Ludvig Holm-Olsen from the University Library in Bergen 14 May 1985-22 June 1987.

Surrogates

plate plate 56 ff. 1r, 65r, 72r-v, 118r-v, 119v, 120r-v. plate plate 13 ff. 1v-2v. diapositive AM 81 a fol. Colour diapositive. b/w-photographs AM 81 a fol. 01 January 1960 ff. 118-20

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
Saga Sverris konúngs, Fornmanna sögur1824; VIII
Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtninged. Finnur JónssonA I: p. 602
Det Arnamagnæanske håndskrift 81a fol. (Skálholtbók yngsta)ed. Albert Kjær, ed. Ludvig Holm-Olsen1910-1947; p. 1-254
Antiquités Russesed. C. C. RafnII: p. 78-79
Heimskringla edr Noregs konunga sögur af Snorra Sturlusynied. Gerhard Schöning, ed. Skúli ThorlaciusIV: p. 1-334
Skulo Theodiri ThorlaciusAntiqvitatum borealium observationes miscellaneæ
Sögur Hákonar Sverrissonar, Guttorms Sigurðarsonar, Ínga Bárðarsonar ok Hákonar Hákonarsonar til falls Skúla hertoga, Fornmanna sögur1835; IX
Hakonar saga and a fragment of Magnus saga with appendices, Icelandic Sagas and other Historical Documents Relating to the Settlements and Descents of the Northmen on the British Islesed. Guðbrandur Vigfússon1887; II
James E. Knirk“Uleselige steder på 1r i AM 81 fol”, Festskrift til Ludvig Holm-Olsenp. 205
Jón HelgasonHandritaspjallp. 77
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian Kålund
1960
The Sagas of King Sverrir and King Hakon the Old: Manuscript No. 81 A Fol. in The Arnamagnæan Collection, Early Icelandic Manuscripts in Facsimileed. Ludvig Holm-Olsen1961; III
Sverris saga etter Cod. AM 327 4toed. Gustav Indrebøp. xxxi-li
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