Handrit.is
 

Manuscript Detail

AM 674 a 4to

View Images

The Icelandic Elucidarius; Iceland, 1150-1199

Name
Einar Eyjólfsson 
Birth
1641 
Death
15 July 1695 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Author; Owner; Scribe 
More Details
Name
Jón Helgason 
Birth
30 June 1899 
Death
19 January 1986 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Marginal 
More Details
Name
Konráð Gíslason 
Birth
03 July 1808 
Death
04 January 1891 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scribe; Scholar; Correspondent; Marginal; recipient 
More Details
Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details
Name
Grímur Einarsson 
Birth
1677 
Death
1707 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Þórður Þorkelsson Vídalín 
Death
14 January 1742 
Occupation
Doctor 
Roles
Owner; Poet; Marginal 
More Details
Name
Jón Þorkelsson Vídalín 
Birth
21 March 1666 
Death
30 August 1720 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Scribe; Author; Correspondent 
More Details
Name
Gísli Magnússon ; Vísi-Gísli 
Birth
1621 
Death
04 June 1696 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Correspondent; Scribe; Author; Owner 
More Details
Name
Skálholt 
Parish
Biskupstungnahreppur 
County
Árnessýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
More Details
Name
Guðríður Gísladóttir 
Birth
1652 
Death
1707 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner; Marginal 
More Details
Name
Þórður Þorláksson 
Birth
14 September 1637 
Death
16 March 1697 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Owner; Poet; Translator 
More Details
Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
More Details
Name
Dall, Birgitte 
Birth
1912 
Death
1989 
Occupation
Book conservator 
Roles
Binder 
More Details

Contents

1
Elucidarius
Filiation

AM 676 b 4to from the seventeeth century is a copy of this manuscript. Even though there are, admittedly, a good many mistakes, it is characterized by an attempt to reproduce the original exactly, so that letter corresponds to letter, abbreviation to abbreviation; to some extent the old letter-shapes are also imitated. AM 676 b 4to was copied in turn in AM 676 a 4to by Einar Eyjólfsson (c. 1641-95).

Bibliography

Firchow, The Old Norse Elucidarius 1992 Ed. and transl.

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

1.1(1r-17v)
No Title
Incipit

Ofst vas ek beÞeɴ af samlere suei|nom minom

Explicit

“gialda GoÞe braut tekeɴ”

Note

Pictures of fols 6v-7r, 14v-15r,16v and 17v.

1.2(18r-v)
No Title
Incipit

Discipulus Vas christus veɴ at licam

Explicit

“eɴ leidde afstr ein faldan til”

1.3(19r-26v)
No Title
Incipit

ma oc Þvi trua at hann site adomstole

Explicit

oc mego þeir iam sciot fara”

1.4(27r-33v)
No Title
Incipit

cleÞe oc goÞ hús oc at hevra fagran | song

Explicit

“am uir Þelegar oc oumbrøÞe”

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
33. 108-120 mm x 174-180 mm.
Foliation

Page and line numbers are added by a nineteenth-century hand. The manuscript shows no foliation.

Collation

There are three complete and two defective gatherings:

  • I: fols 1-8.
  • II: fols 9-16.
  • III: fols 17-18; two conjugate leaves, which were the outermost of the gathering.
  • IV: fols 19-26.
  • V: fols 27-33; fols 17+32, 28+31, 29+30 are conjugate, fol. 33 is a single leaf, but was conjugate with a lost leaf at the beginning of the gathering; this leaf has been cut out and the inner margin of it is still preserved.

Condition

There are four major lacunae. The first occurs between fols 17 and 18, the second between fols 18 and 19, the third between fols 26 and 27, and the fourth comes after fol. 33. Several leaves are damaged at the top, with the result that some of the writing has been lost on fols 9, 13, 15, 16, 30 and 31. Most of fol. 32 has been cut out, and fol. 33 lacks its outer part. There are holes in fols 28 and 30; the first at least is older than the writing.

Layout

Written in long lines with 17 lines to the page. Initials, which are now entirely faded but were perhaps red originally, occur only on fol. 1r of the prologue and on fol. 1v where the dialogue begins.

Script

The handwriting is rather large and very regular.

Additions

There are a few apparently old signs in the margins:

  • On fol. 20r:10, left margin, and on fol. 22v:13, left margin there is an er-sign. In the first instance it may perhaps indicate that there is a mistake in the text.
  • On fol. 24r:10, right margin, there is a triangular shape, possibly intended to make it easier to find the section which begins here on the joys of the blessed.
  • On fol. 29v:10, left margin, there is a cross.
  • On fol. 6r above l. 7 and on fol. 11r above l. 17 there is the word “frahuarf” in a hand which can hardly be later than c. 1400; what it refers to is not clear.

Other marginal notes from later times are quite short and unimportant.

  • At the bottom of fol. 18r there is “Bokin heiter lvcidarjus”; it seems to continue “Þviat Þ|etta er skr”.
  • At the bottom of fol. 7r there is “Ora”.
  • On fol. 17r there seems to be “Svo sertv Þa”.
  • Part of the alphabet is written at the bottom of fol. 9r (from a to l) and at the top of fol. 18v (from a to i).
  • Single letters on fol. 6v (h) and fol. 14v (apparently three or four d's under each other).
  • There are some underlinings on fols 7v-8v.
  • There are some references to other manuscripts (AM 675 4to and AM 238 XVII 4to) and on fols 17v bottom, 18r top, 18v bottom, 20v bottom and 25v:14, and line numbers in the margins of most pages. These are all from the nineteenth century. Jón Helgason (Manuscripta Islandica vol. IV p. viii) reckons that they were no doubt written by Konráð Gíslason.
Some of the leaves are certainly palimpsests, as faint traces of earlier writing can be seen. This was noticed by Árni Magnússon, who wrote on a slip of paper, inserted between fols 22 and 23: “Þetta synest vera | skrifad uppä upp-|skafning”.

Binding

The manuscript was apparently unbound until 1888, when it was given its present binding.

History

Origin

Written in Iceland. Kålund (Katalog vol. II p. 92) agreed with Konráð Gíslason (Brudstykker af den islandske Elucidarius p. 51) that the manuscript was written c. 1200. However, A Dictionary of Old Norse Prose ( — Ordbog over det norrøne prosasprog) (after Hægstad, Latinsk skrift i gamalnorsk maal, 1906 p. 10, and Helle Jensen and Stefán Karlsson [1983, pers.]) date it to the second half of the twelfth century. AM 674 a 4to is considered to be one of the earliest extant Icelandic vernacular manuscripts.

Provenance

Nothing certain is known about the history of the manuscript before it came into Árni Magnúson's possession. On the basis of some of Árni Magnússon's notes and a letter from Grímur Einarsson (1677-1707), now AM-slips a-d in AM 676 a 4to, it appears that Grímur remembered an old parchment manuscript which his father, Einar Eyjólfsson (c. 1641-95), had valued very highly and called Bókin dýra, but he could not say what this book contained. He thought that his father had owned the book and that it had come to Þórður Þorkelsson Vídalín, a brother of Bishop Jón Vídalín. It turned out, however, that the book Þórður Þorkelsson had was not a parchment manuscript, but the present AM 676 a 4to.

Árni Magnússon says in note c, with Þórður Þorkelsson as his source, that AM 676 a is a copy of Gísli Magnússon's codex. Jón Helgason (Manuscripta Islandica vol. IV p. xii), however, does not believe AM 676 b 4to to be Gísli Magnússon's codex, even though AM 676 a 4to certainly is a copy of AM 676 b 4to. He argues that it is very unlikely that Árni Magnúson would have described the 16 paper leaves, of which AM 676 b 4to originally consisted of, as a codex and concludes that it can only be AM 674 a which is meant by the term Gísli Magnússon's codex.

Gísli Magnússon (1621-96) moved to Skálholt in 1686 or 1687 and lived there with his daughter, Guðríður Gísladóttir, the bishop's wife, for the rest of his life. If the manuscript belonged to him, it is probable that Einar Eyjólfsson, who stayed at Skálholt at this time helping Bishop Þorður Þorláksson with the preparation of editions of sagas, used the manuscript there.

It is also possible that Gísli Magnússon gave the manuscript to Einar Eyjólfsson who may then have let Árni Magnússon have it. Bókin dýra may then be identical with AM 674 a 4to, and Grímur Einarsson may have remembered correctly that this book belonged to his father at one time.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 23 August 2005 by EW-J.

Availability

Accessible for use.

Custodial History

The manuscript was restored by Birgitte Dall from 1958 to 15 August 1959.

Surrogates

plate neg 34 s.d. plate pos 34 20 November 2001 diapositive AM 674 a, 4to s.d. pp. 4, 7, and 8-9; pocket no. 49 digital AM 674 a, 4to 3 June 2004 p. 4, CD no. 3 b/w prints AM 674 a, 4to 1956

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
The Old Norse Elucidariused. Evelyn Scherabon Firchow
Konráð Gíslason“Brudstykker af den islandske Elucidarius”, Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie1858; p. 51-172
Elucidarius in Old Norse Translation, ed. Evelyn Scherabon Firchow, ed. Kaaren Grimstad1989; XXXVI
The Arna-Magnæan Manuscript 674 a, 4to. Elucidarius, ed. Jón Helgason1957; IV
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian KålundII: p. 92
Marius HægstadLatinsk skrift i gamalnorsk maal - Vestnorske maalføre fyre 1350, Videnskabs-Selskabets Skrifter1906; Innleiding
2001
2004
1956
Det Arnamagnæanske Haandskrift No. 674. A. 4to indeholdende det ældste Brudstykke af Elucidarius paa Islandsk / udgivet i fotolitografiske Aftryk af Kommissionen for det Arnamagnæanske Legat
« »