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Manuscript Detail

AM 544 4to

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Hauksbók; Iceland and Norway, 1290-1360

Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details

This special character is not currently recognized (U+f20d).

LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH ACUTELATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH ACUTE

Special character shown similar to its original form.

This special character is not currently recognized (U+ef97).

Name
Ásgeir Jónsson 
Death
27 August 1707 
Occupation
Scribe 
Roles
Scribe 
More Details
Name
Copenhagen 
Country
Denmark 
More Details
Name
Stiklastaðir 
County
Nord-Trøndelag 
More Details
Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Jón Sigurðsson 
Birth
17 June 1811 
Death
07 December 1879 
Occupation
Scholar; Archivist 
Roles
Scholar; Scribe; Owner; Donor; Correspondent; recipient 
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Name
Finnur Jónsson 
Birth
29 May 1858 
Death
30 March 1934 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar; Scribe; Donor 
More Details
Name
Brynjólfur Sveinsson 
Birth
14 September 1605 
Death
05 August 1675 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Correspondent 
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Name
Sigurður Björnsson 
Birth
01 February 1643 
Death
03 September 1723 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner; Scribe 
More Details
Name
Sigurður Jónsson 
Birth
1618 
Death
04 March 1677 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Haukur Erlendsson 
Death
26 May 1334 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Jón Ólafsson ; Grunnavíkur-Jón 
Birth
16 August 1705 
Death
17 July 1779 
Occupation
Scholar 
Roles
Scribe; Author 
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Name
Jón Helgason 
Birth
30 June 1899 
Death
19 January 1986 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Marginal 
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Name
Stefán Karlsson 
Birth
02 December 1928 
Death
02 May 2006 
Occupation
Scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details
Name
Norway 
More Details
Name
Bjarni Einarsson 
Birth
1550 
Death
1650 
Occupation
Farmer 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Ari Magnússon 
Birth
1571 
Death
11 October 1652 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Author; Scribe; Translator 
More Details
Name
Arngrímur Jónsson Vídalín ; lærði 
Birth
1568 
Death
27 June 1648 
Occupation
Priest, Rector Officialis; Rector 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Poet; Translator 
More Details
Name
Björn Jónsson 
Birth
1574 
Death
28 June 1655 
Occupation
Farmer; Member of the lögrétta; Member of the lögrétta 
Roles
Author; Poet; Scribe 
More Details
Name
Þorlákur Skúlason 
Birth
24 August 1597 
Death
04 January 1656 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Author 
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Name
Worm, Ole 
Birth
13 May 1588 
Death
31 August 1654 
Occupation
Doctor, Professor 
Roles
Owner; Correspondent; Scribe; Translator; Annotator; Official; Author; Scholar 
More Details
Name
Seerup, Anne Wedel 
Birth
17 October 1976 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
More Details
Name
Dall, Birgitte 
Birth
1912 
Death
1989 
Occupation
Book conservator 
Roles
Binder 
More Details

Contents

1(1r-14v)
Geographica qvædam et physica, Theologica qvædam ex sermonibus Augustini, Varia, atqve inter ea Astronomica qvædamHeimslýsing ok helgifræði
Filiation

AM 765 4to is Árni Magnússon's autograph copy of fols 1r-4r and 8r-9r.

Note

Fols 1r-14v contain a collection of dissertations and excerpts on geographical, chronological and theological subjects. Ends defectively.

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

1.1(1r-v:23)
On famous rivers and miraculous springs
Incipit

Brunnr er einn i paradiso. er or falla fiorar ar hingat i þenna heim.

Explicit

“En ef hia er þeim latet | liggia kleði eða vll eða smo tre. þa verðr alt at steíní.”

Bibliography

Rafn, Antiquités Russes vol. II p. 430-432 Edited in extracts from the copy AM 765 4to

Keywords

1.2(1v:24 -2r:9)
Prologus
Rubric

“prologus”

Incipit

ÞAt er sagt at moyses t?ki þat rað fystr.

Explicit

“oc namo þar siðan að-|rer eftír þeim at skrifa a bokum þau tiðendi er eigi skyldi or min-|ni liða.”

Keywords

1.3(2r:9-20)
A Piece on Paradise
Rubric

“fra paradiso.”

Incipit

Sva er sagt at paradis er hinn ?sti lutr þessarar veraldar

Explicit

“oc veria biorg oc hitar at menn skili eigi þangat | komast.”

Bibliography

Rafn, Antiquités Russes vol. II p. 433 Edited from the copy AM 765 4to

Keywords

1.4(2r:20-4r:7)
A Geographical Compendium
Rubric

“her segír fra þui huersu lond liggia i veroldenní.”

Incipit

Þessarar bygðar þa er indialand yst.

Explicit

“þar er mein-|langs borg a. j henní var ambrosius byskup.”

Keywords

1.5(4r:7-8r:12)
Sermon
Rubric

“vm þat huaðan otru hofst.”

Incipit

Líufír br?ðr.

Explicit

“a hinum hel-|ga crosse.”

Keywords

1.6(8r:12-v:7)
How Noah's Sons Divided The World Amongst Themselves
Rubric

“Fra þuí huar huerr noa sona bygði heíminn.”

Incipit

Synir noa voro .iij. þeir skiftu ollum heímí m ser huar kyn huers þeira | skilldi byggia.

Explicit

“þa verða tungur alsz .ij. oc .lxx. en þioð | lond. þushundrað.”

Bibliography

Werlauff, Symbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Ævi p. 9 A small extract in the footnotes

Keywords

1.7(8v:7-9r:31)
On Various Fantastic Peoples
Rubric

“her segir fra marghattaðum þioðum.”

Incipit

Sva segia froðar b?kr at i heímínum se sua marg hattað|ar þioðer beði at vęxti oc at eðli.

Explicit

“þeir ero sua við | menn sem olmer hundar.”

Bibliography

Rafn, Antiquités Russes vol. II p. 440-441 Short extracts from the copy AM 765 4to

Keywords

1.8(9r:31-10v:27)
Sermon
Rubric

“Her segir ”

Incipit

Hin helgi byskup er heitir augustinus melti við þa menn er hann var kennímaðr | yfír.

Explicit

“beði þessa heíms oc sua annars | þat se. A-M-E-N.”

Keywords

1.9(10v:28-12r:11)
Four Passages From Elucidarius
Rubric

“her segir huaðan blot skur guða hofust.”

Incipit

Ef aller gofgaðu einn guð fyst i upp hafe.

Explicit

“þetta er at d?ma lifendr oc dauða.”

Keywords

1.10(12r:11-13r:26)
A Sermon On Embers Day
Rubric

“vm ímbru daga hald.”

Incipit

Moyses bauð gyðingum forðum i logum at hallda ímbru daga | ferna a hueríum .ij. miserum.

Explicit

“Sa er lifir oc | rikir með feðr oc syni oc anda helgum vm allar allder j einum guð|dome. A-”

Keywords

1.11(13r:26-v:11)
On The Rainbow
Rubric

“vm regnboga.”

Incipit

A Regn boga ero þrir lítír.

Explicit

“oc nokor miseri siðan at eigi skilldi oftar | floð koma þat er heimen ?yddi sua sem a hans dogum hafðe orðet.”

Keywords

1.12(13v:11-14r:4)
On The Course Of The Sun
Rubric

“vm solstoðr”

Incipit

Þa er laupar hefer veret um varet aðr a þeim degi er .x. netr ero | til ions messo

Explicit

“Sia er solar gangr at tolo stiorno oddae norðan a islande.”

Keywords

1.13(14r:5-v)
On Foreign Towns And The Burial Places Of Holy Men
Rubric

“vm borga skipan oc legstaðe heilagra manna.”

Incipit

Rvma borg er yfir ollum borgom.

Explicit

“oc af bondom hins”

Keywords

2(15r-19v)
Theologica qvædam, videntur esse úr AdamsbókHeimspeki ok helgifræði
Bibliography

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók p. 178-187

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

2.1(15r:1-9)
Sagan af Guðs þiónústumaðr
Incipit

vin þinn þer. þui segi ek

Explicit

“konungr bað | menn sina lata fara hann með naðum þuiat hann er guðs þiónóstu maðr.”

Keywords

2.2(15r:9-16r:3)
A Conversation Between A Pupil And A Master
Rubric

“fra | heilræðum spekínga”

Incipit

Nv spurði lærisveinn meistara sinn.

Explicit

“þat vetti oss faðir ok sun ok hinn helgi andi amen

Keywords

2.3(16r:4-17r:14)
A Treatise On The Four Elements And Their Mixture In Man's Blood
Rubric

“Af natturu mannzins ok bloði.”

Incipit

Allzvalltandi guð er af | engu efni gerði alla luti.

Explicit

ok fellr þui vari slefa oruósum | sem bornum

Bibliography

Möbius, Analecta norræna p. 201-203

Keywords

2.4(17r:14-18v:31)
On Seth's Journey To Paradise And On the Cross of Christ
Rubric

“huaðan kominn er ✠ drottins

Incipit

Sva er sagt siðan adam | hafði syndína gerua i paradíso.

Explicit

ok sannaðiz sua | spasaga drotningar.”

Keywords

2.5(18v:31-35)
A List Of Twelve Unseemly Things In The World
Incipit

Þesser eru xíj heíms osomar þeir er tela allt veralldar lif

Explicit

“lyðr laga lauss.”

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur p. 301 Footnote 1

Keywords

2.6(19r)
A Plan Of Jerusalem With Drawings Of Churches And Temples
Rubric

Civitas Hiervsalem famosisima

Language of Text

Latin

Keywords

2.7(19v)
Afsaknir Fyrir Samneyti Við Bannsetta
Incipit

Uær vilium þat birta fyri folke af huerium til fellum þeir menn | megu l?glega af sakaz sem bansettum monnum samneyta sua at þeir falla | i ecke bann eða forboð fyri þa skyld.

Explicit

ok fær hann eigi forðaz þeira samneyte.”

Keywords

3(20r-21r)
Völuspá
Incipit

Hlioðs bið ek allar helgar kindir meiri ok minni mǫgu heimdallar villtv at ek vafǫðrs vel | framm telia forn spiǫll fira þau er ek fremzr vm man.

Explicit

“Kemr hinn | dimi dreki fliugandi naðr fraann neðan fra niða berr sier i | fiǫðrum flygr uǫll yfir niðhoggr nai nv man hon sǫkk|vaz.”

Note

The text is different from Völuspá in Codex Regius and in Snorri's Edda and represents an independent record based on oral tradition.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords
4(22r-33v)
Trójumanna saga
Rubric

“Her hefr troio manna sogv”

Incipit

A Dogvm Josve er hofðingi var a iorsala | landi yfir gyþinga lyð eftir moyises

Explicit

“en her eftir hefir sogv fra enea ok þeim er bretland bygðv”

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

5(34r)
Seven Precious Stones And Their Nature
Incipit

Ematistvs hefir pvrpvralit sem vindropi

Explicit

ok vtan vm linklæði þa er sagt at hann b?tir riðv ok allzkyns meínsemðer”

Bibliography

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók p. 227-228

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

6(35v)
Cisiojanus
Incipit

Cicio ianus epi cibi uendicat oct fe ma maran

Explicit

“Sicca uiris afia curuis rex bustet cauet sic Brito creans stilbon ori | ʀis aud saba uiris as”

Note

Ciciojanus is a versified Latin enumeration for remembering the church festivals throughout the year.

Bibliography

Eiríkur and Finnur Jónsson, Hauksbók p. 229-230

Language of Text

Latin

Keywords

7(36r-59r)
Breta sögur Including Merlínusspá
Rubric

“her hefr breta sogvr”

Incipit

Nv er at segia af enea envm | millda at hann rakz lengi i hafe þa er hann for af troio ok | kom hann vm siþir við sikiley.

Explicit

“hann fostradi hakon svn haralz konungs harfagra”

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

8(60r-68v)
Two Dialogues
Rubric

“Vr?ða likams ok salar”

Incipit

BOk þersa gerði meistari valltíʀ af samburð | tveɢia manna ok rœðir hvaʀ við annan af sinv efni hvaʀ

Explicit

“en heímr eɢiar hegoma þat er at heliaz a veralldar

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

9(69r-72v:9)
Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar
Incipit

seð hafa. loðin svarar sva sagða ek

Explicit

ok andaðiz i þeiri einsetv”

Final Rubric

ok lykr þar | nv fra hemingi at segia”

Filiation

AM 326b 4to is a copy of Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar written by Ásgeir Jónsson. It was most possibly copied during the winter 1697-98, when Ásgeir was in Copenhagen. This copy is of particular importance because it was written when a leaf which has since disapeared was still to be found before the present fol. 69.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

10(72v:9-76v)
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
Rubric

“her hefr vpp sogv heiðreks konvngs ens | vitra”

Incipit

Sva er sagt at i fyrndinni var kallað iotvnheímar norðr | i finnmork en ymis land fyri svnnan ok millim haloga landz

Explicit

“en fvglar flvgv yfir havfði þer ok tveimmegin þin þat var þeira vegr þv”

Note

The saga ends in the beginning of the riddle section known as Heiðreks gátur.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

11(77r-89v:35)
Fóstbrœðra saga
Incipit

kenningar nafn at þv skallt kolbrvnar skalld heita

Explicit

“Nv l?k. sva sem. sagt. var ęfi þormoðar kolbrvnar skallds

Final Rubric

ok lykr her fra sogn þeiri er ver | kvnvm at segia fra þormodi kappa hins. helga olafs. konvngs”

Note

Pictures of the text describing the battle of Stiklastaðir [fols 78v-79r].

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

12(89v:35-93r:17)
Algorismus
Rubric

“her byriar algorismum

Incipit

List þessi heitir algorismvs

Explicit

“figvrv er her er sidaʀ. ger. ok kollvt er kvbvs | perfectvs

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

13(93r:17-101v:24)
Eiríks saga rauða
Rubric

“Her hefr upp Sogu þeirra Þor|finnz Karlsefnis oc Snorra Þorbrandz-|sonar.”

Incipit

Olafr het her konvngr er kalladr var oloafr hviti

Explicit

“veri gvð með ors ameɴ”

Filiation

Fols 60-83 of AM 1008 4to contains a copy of this saga. The hand is unidentified; corrections by Árni Magnússon.

Note

Added by Árni Magnússon.

Pictures of fols 97v-98r: The description of Wineland.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

14(101v:25-104v:17)
Skálda saga
Rubric

“Her hefr sogv skallda Harallz konvngs harfagra”

Incipit

HAralldr konvngr harfagri reð fyri noregi

Explicit

ok segir her ecki lengra af hanvm”

Filiation

    AM 307 4to, AM 67 a fol. and AM 67 b fol. are copies of Skálda saga.
  • AM 307 4to has lacunae where the original was indistinct. However, Árni Magnússon has has filled in text corresponding to the bottom lines of fol. 101v. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.
  • AM 67 a fol. is written by Ásgeir Jónsson, most possibly in the winter of 1697-98, when he stayed in Copenhagen. There are a few lacunae, particularly in the reproduction of fol. 102r.
  • AM 67 b fol. is another, almost identical, copy by Ásgeir Jónsson. It has, however, some mistakes which are not in AM 67 a fol., and it is probably a copy of the latter and not of Hauksbók itself.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

15(104v:18-105r:21)
Af Upplendinga konungum
Rubric

“af vpplendinga konvngvm

Incipit

OLafr svn ingiallz konvngs illraða af svia ʀiki rvddi ver|maland

Explicit

ok af hans nafni erv ynglingar kallader”

Filiation

AM 307 4to is a copy. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

16(105r:21-107v)
Ragnarssona þáttr
Rubric

“Her seger af Ragnars sv|nvm ok hversv margir konvngar erv komner af þeim

Incipit

Eftir davða rings konvngs tok | ragnaʀ svn hans konvngdóm yfir svia velldi ok dana

Explicit

“þeira svn var haralldr konvngr enn harfagri er fystr varð einvallz konvngr yfer ollvm norege”

Filiation

AM 307 4to is a copy. The hand is identical with the one who wrote AM 1008 4to.

Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords

17(107v)
Prognostica Temporum
Incipit

Si prima feria fuerit kalenda ianuaríj

Explicit

“hominibus in notu”

Language of Text

Latin

Keywords

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
107. Fols 21v, 34v-35r and 59v were originally blank. 243 mm x 158 mm
Foliation

Besides Kålund's foliation in red in the upper right-hand corner, there are two older foliations. The earlier one is from c. 1800 and shows traces of an earlier random order of the gatherings; it includes fols 1r-14v, but not fols 102r-107v. Probably the gathering was lent out, perhaps for the use of the editing of Scriptores Rerum Danicarum, II.

Jón Sigurðsson did the second foliation and it is similar to the order mentioned by Árni Magnússon in AM 435 a 4to, although it has been done without consideration for fols 1r-14v as these leaves were not incorporated in the Reykjavík collection of antiquities until 1887.

Collation

The 107 leaves are divided into 14 gatherings:

  • I: Fols 1-8.
  • II: Fols 9-14. Fols 11+14 and 12+13 are conjugate, but fols 9 and 10 are single leaves. After fol. 14 two leaves which were conjugate with fols 9-10 have been excised: a narrow strip of each of the excised leaves remains in the spine of the book.
  • III: Fols 15-21. Fols 15+21 are conjugate, fol. 16 was a single leaf from the beginning, fols 17+20 seem to have been conjugate when Finnur Jónsson wrote his description of the manuscript, but are separate now, and so are fols 18+19, which presumably were once conjugate.
  • IV: Fols 22-29.
  • V: Fols 30-35. Fols 30+35 and 31+34 are conjugate, and so were fols 32+33 at one time, though they are separate now. The gathering never contained more than 6 leaves.
  • VI: Fols 36-43.
  • VII: Fols 44-51.
  • VIII: Fols 52-59. The two outermost leaves are divided by a cut, but were conjugate originally.
  • IX: Fols 60-68. Fols 60+68, 61+66, 62+65 and 63+64 are conjugate. Fol. 67 is a single leaf.
  • X: Fols 69-76.
  • XI: Fols 77-84.
  • XII: Fols 85-92.
  • XIII: Fols 93-100.
  • XIV: Fols 101-107. Fol. 101 is now a single leaf, but it is possible that it has been joined to a now excised leaf at the end of the gathering. The other leaves are conjugate as fols 102+107, 103+106 and 104+105.

Condition

There are lacunae in three places in the manuscript: After fol. 14 two leaves have been excised and the narrow strips of the leaves have remained in the spine. After fol. 68 one gathering is missing, and after fol. 76 at least one gathering of 8 leaves has been lost. Several leaves are damaged with tears or holes or they have an irregular shape. Some of the damage does not allow the lines to be of full length, but this damage is apparently older than the script.

The following leaves are torn: fols 2, 9-10, 15-28, 30, 32-35, 37-38, 40-43, 45-47, 49, 51, 53-60, 67-68, 70, 74-80, 82, 86, 88-89, 95, 97-100. On fol. 82 a corner has been torn off, and fols 19, 21 and 59 are only in half size, although a thin slip of the lower part is preserved at the spine. The lower part of these leaves was probably left blank as the trimming has not caused any loss of text. The bottom margin of fol. 63 is trimmed.

Several leaves are in a bad condition due to damp and wear, and they have become dark, faded or crinkled. The script was touched up in the seventeenth century with black ink where the writing had become particularly indistinct.

The restoration of the script on the following folios was done by Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson: fols 1v, 3r, 4r, 5r, 6v, 8v, 9r, 10r, 14r-v, 22r, 30v, 36r-52v, 72v, 77r, 78r, 103r, 104r. According to Árni Magnússon's account in AM 435 a 4to, fol. 113, the lögmaður Sigurður Björnsson told him that the rest of the touching up was done by himself and another lögmaður, Sigurður Jónsson. Sigurður Björnsson did the touching up on the following folios: 46v-47r, 48r, 49r-v, 50r and 52r-v. Sigurður Jónsson did the rest of the touching up in the section 36r-59r containing the Bretasögur.

Layout

The manuscript is written in long lines with 30 to 43 lines to the page. The headings and rubrics are red, and the initials are mainly in red.

Script

Hand 1 occurs on fols 1r-14v; the script is Carolingian-insular minuscule. The scribe was possibly Norwegian.

Hand 2 is found on fols 15r-18v:31. The script is early Gothic bookhand.

Hand 3 has only written 4 lines and occurs on fol. 18v:31-35. The script of this hand is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 4 occurs on fol. 19r and the script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 5 occurs on fol. 19v and the script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 6 is considered to be Icelandic and occurs on fols 20r-21r. The script of this hand is Icelandic Gothic bookhand.

Hand 7 occurs on fols 22r-34r, 36r-59r, 60r-80r:26, 99r:14-100r:2 and 101v-107v:5. The script is Gothic bookhand and the hand appears to be the same hand as in AM 371 4to and may be identified as Haukr Erlendsson's. The following picture - of fols 25v-26r from Trójumanna saga - is a sample of this hand.

Hand 8 occurs on fol. 35v and the script is early Gothic bookhand.

Hand 9 uses Icelandic othography and therefore the writer has been described as “the first Icelandic secretary”. This handlist is to be found on fols 80r:26-81r:7, 81r:9-85v and 87r:14-99r:14. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 10 occurs on fol. 81r:7-9. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 11 occurs on fol. 86r:1-7. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 12 occurs on fols 86r:7-87r:13. The script is Gothic bookhand.

This writer has been described as “the second Icelandic secretary” and the hand occurs on fols 100r:3-101r. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Hand 14 occurs on fol. 107v:-5-42. The script is Gothic bookhand.

Decoration

At the beginning of new sections larger flourished initials in various colours occur.

On fol. 19r there is a drawing of Jerusalem including the most important buildings.

Additions

There are several marginalia in this manuscript. Some consist of single letters and others are figurative. Fol. 8v, for example, has a drawing of a man's head wearing a hat.

    At times sentences occur:
  • fol. 5v: “Her er skrif andres isslendin”.
  • fol. 19r: “þeim go”.
  • fol. 21r: “amen med aund ok munn halla rei|knar hofud summu allir huad batar | þad mælgi ok mal”.
  • fol. 21v: some runic letters, the beginning of Ave Maria “aue maria gracia plena dominus” and the statement: “þessa bok a Teitr Palsson | skal urentr vera”.

Among the scribblings on the originally blank fols 34v-35r there are statements about Christ, an alphabet in runes, a religious Latin verse and a drawing of a face.

Fols 6r, 7, 8r, 13v, 28v, 42v, 70r, 74v, 75r and 99r have corrections and references written in a contemporary hand.

Árni Magnússon, his archivist Jón Sigurðsson and others have at several places added chapter headings.

Binding

In 1730, Jón Ólafsson described the manuscript as “skinnalaus”, or without any outer covering, and “med hampreimum”, which refers to the thongs of hemp across the spine to which the gatherings were fastened. The manuscript was not bound at this time. About a century later, in 1828, Möbius (Edda Sæmundar hinns fróða vol. III) wrote that there was a wooden board belonging to the binding of the book on which there was a runic sign: “In tabula lignea, ad ligaturam voluminis pertinene, incisus est character insignis, e Runis variis compositus, et priscum aliqvem libri possessorem indigitans”. But when Kristian Kålund (Katalog, I, 687) described AM 544 4to in 1889, this wooden board had disappeared.

AM 544 4to was bound in 1909 and again in 1967. The latter is also the manusript's present binding, a modern standard half-binding. The dimensions are: 248 mm x 183 mm x 72 mm.

History

Origin

The largest part of Hauksbók was written in Iceland by Haukr Erlendsson and other Icelandic scribes, although fols 1r-18v:31 were written in Norway. There has been some discussion whether fols 1-14 were written by a Norwegian scribe or a native of the Faroe Islands, cf. Kristensen 1925. This is difficult to answer, however, as medieval sources for the Faroese language are very scanty.

Kristian Kålund (Katalog vol. I p. 683) dated AM 544 4to to the beginning of the fourteenth century. Different parts of the manuscript were dated more precisely by Jón Helgason and Stefán Karlsson, respectively. The datings are as follows:

  • Fols 1r-18v:31: c. 1290-1334 (Jón Helgason, Hauksbók 1960 p. xx).
  • Fol. 18v:31-35: c. 1350 (Stefán Karlsson pers. 1988)
  • Fol. 19v: the first half of the fourteenth century (Stefán Karlsson, pers. 1988)
  • Fols 22r-33v, 36r-49r:10, 53r:7-59r, 69r-107v: c. 1302-10 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 p. 119)
  • Fol. 34r: c. 1302 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 p. 118)
  • Fols 60r-68v: c. 1310 (Stefán Karlsson, Aldur Hauksbókar 1964 p. 119)

Provenance

Hauksbók has been divided into 3 parts in the AM collection: AM 371 4to, AM 544 4to and AM 675 4to. Among other unknown scribes, the manuscript was written by Haukr Erlendsson. Letters from 28 January 1302 and 14 October 1310, written by Haukr Erlendsson himself, serve as evidence for this, as the script in the letters is similar to the main hand in Hauksbók. After Haukr Erlendsson's death in Norway in 1334, it is presumed that the codex passed to his successors in Iceland and was then passed on as an heirloom for about the next 300 years.

The next known owner, Bjarni Einarsson, states on fol. 59v: “ Biarni Einarsson a Hamr a þessa | bök med rettu og hefur hann lied mier hana | i bokaskiptum og skal hann fä hana | aptur þad firsta eg kann heim med skilum”. Bjarni Einarsson who was a prosperous and notable man knew the county-sheriff (sýslumaður) Ari Magnússon of Ögur (1571-1652). In 1635, after Bjarni Einarsson had died, Ari Magnússon lent Hauksbók to Skagafjörður and the manuscript passed on to two men with antiquarian interests, the priest Arngrímur Jónsson (1568-1648), and then on to the farmer Björn Jónsson of Skarðsá (1574-1655). A third person, the Bishop of Hólar Þorlákur Skuláson (1597-1656), mentioned in his letter to Ole Worm (1588-1654) in Copenhagen in 1636 that Björn Jónsson had obtained the manuscript. From 1660 to 1670 Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson owned the manuscript and touched up the script.

In AM 435 a 4to, fols 111v-114v Árni Magnússon wrote: “Ur landnama bok (α) og | Kristindoms Sỏgu, | fragmenta nokkur, | Geographica qvædam et physica. | Theologica qvædam ex Sermonibus Au-|gustini. | Varia, atqve inter ea Astronomica | qvædam. | Theologica qvædam, videntur esse | ur Adams bok. | Delineatio urbis Hierosolymorum. | Vỏluspa. | Trojomanna Saga. | De gemmis nonnulla. | Bretasỏgur. vïda ölæsar (β). | Vidræda likams og salar. [112v] aptan af Hemings Sỏgu, þar ï um lika | Lodin. | Saga Heidreks konungs ens vitra, vantar vid | endann. | aptan af Sỏgu Þorgeirs Havarssonar, | og Þormodar Kolbrunar skallds. | Algorismus (er de Arithmetica. | Saga Þorfinns Karlsefnes oc Snor-|ra Þorbrands sonar. | Saga Skallda Harallz konungs Harfagra | af nidium Ragnars Lodbrokar | fragment. | Lucidarium. | Bokin er i 4to [113v:13-17] β] I þessum Bretasỏgum er vida dreged i | stafena med nyu bleke, seiger Sigurdur | Biỏrnsson lỏgmadur þad giỏrt hafa | Sigurd Jonsson lỏgmann, sem i bokena | brukad hafe. [114r] Merlinus Spä in membra|nâ, i bok þad er bokenn sem eg nu | ä 4to sende Mag. | Bryniolfur Sigurde Jons | syne lỏgmanne, og bad | hann /: so sem vel lesande | mann /: ad draga i þä | öskiru stafena. Þad | giỏrde lỏgmadur, ad | samverkande Sigurde | Biỏrnssyne lỏgmanne, | sem þä ätte heima | i Einarsnese, post 1664. | enn adur enn hann vard landskri|fare. Ret. Sigurdar Biỏrns | sonar lỏgmanns 1707.”

Acquisition

Árni Magnusson acquired AM 544 4to and AM 675 4to after the death of Brynjólfur Sveinsson, as the Bishop's manuscript collection came to Gaulverjabær. When Árni Magnússon wrote his catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts, now known as AM 435 a 4to, he describes Hauksbók as a single codex.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 17 February 2000 by AWS.

Availability

Accessible for use.

Custodial History

From 8 September to 20 October 1958 the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by R. Edelmann.

From 17 April to 4 June 1968, the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by R. Edelmann.

From 7 December 1977 to 26 May 1978 the manuscript was exhibited at The Royal Library, Copenhagen (Det kongelige Bibliotek). The exhibition was arranged by Svend Gissel.

From 10 March 1992 to 15 March 1993 the manuscript was lent out to The National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet) for the exhibition Viking og Hvidekrist arranged by Nordisk Ministerråd.

The manuscript was restored and rebound by Birgitte Dall from 13 August 1966 to 23 February 1967.

Surrogates

plate plade 14 s.d. 70 mm 70mm 196 Supplementary photographs of fol. 100r s.d. plate plade 110 Supplementary photographs of 96v-97r s.d. b/w prints AM 544 4to 11 August 1999

Bibliography

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Jón ÞorkelssonNokkur blöð úr Hauksbók og brot úr Guðmundarsögu
Antiquités Russesed. C. C. RafnII: p. 430-432
E. C. WerlauffSymbolæ ad Geographiam Medii Aevip. 5:26-28
Analecta norrænaed. Theodor Möbiusp. 201-203
Heilagra Manna Søgur: Fortællinger og Legender om hellige Mænd og Kvindered. C. R. Unger1877; I-II
Norrőn Fornkvæði: Islandsk samling af folkelige Oldtidsdigte om Nordens Guder og Heroer almindelig kaldet Sæmundar Edda hins Fróðaed. Sophus Buggep. 19-26
Continens carmina Vóluspá, Hávamál & Rígsmál. Ex codice Bibliothecæ Regiæ Hafniensis pergameno, nec non diversis Legati Arna-Magnæani et aliorum membraneis chartaceisqve meloris notæ manuscripts. Cum interpretatione Latina, lectionibus, variis, notis, glossario vocum etc, Edda Sæmundar hinns fróða: Edda rhytmica seu antiqvior, vulgo Sæmundina dictaed. Finnur Magnússon1828; III
Völuspá, Hávamál, Eddadigteed. Jón Helgason1951; I
Fire og Fyrretyve for en stor Deel forhen utrykte Prøver af oldnordisk Sprog og Litteratured. Konráð Gíslasonp. 534-544
Edda Sæmundar hins fróða: Mit einem Anhang zum Theil bisher ungedruckter Gedichteed. Theodor Möbiusp. 265-272
“Trójumanna saga ok Breta sögur, Trojamændenes og Britternes sagaer, efter Hauksbók (Lagmand Hr. Hauk Erlendssons Haandskrift) med dansk Oversættelse af Jon Sigurdsson”, Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historieed. Jón Sigurðsson1848; p. 3-145
Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtninged. Finnur JónssonB II: p. 10-45
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Guðbrandur VigfússonOrkneyinga Saga and Magnus Saga with Appendices, Icelandic Sagas and other Historical Documents Relating to the Settlements and Descents of the Northmen on the British Isles1887; I
Heiðreks saga: Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks konungs, STUAGNLed. Jón Helgason1924; XLVIII
Hevararsaga og Heidreks, Norrøne Skrifter af sagnhistorisk Indholded. Sophus Bugge1864-1873; III
Hervarar Saga ok Heiðreks Konungsed. N. M. Petersen
Fornaldar sögur Nordrlanda: Eptir gömlum handritumed. Carl Christian RafnI: p. 513-533
Hervararsagaed. Peter Frederik Suhmp. 2-132:3
Fóstbræðra saga, STUAGNL, Íslendinga sögured. Björn K. Þórólfsson1925-1927; XLIX
Fóstbrőðra saga, Nordiske Oldskriftered. Konráð Gíslason1852; XV
Grönlands historiske Mindesmærkered. Det kongelige nordiske Oldskrift-SelskabII: p. 282-402
“Algorismus, eller Anviisning til at kjende og anvende de saakaldte arabiske Tal, efter Hauk Erlendssons Codex meddeelt og ledsaget med Oversættelse af P. A. Munch”, Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historieed. P. A. Munch1849; p. 353-375
Richard Perkins“The Furðustrandir of Eiríks saga rauða”, Mediaeval Scandinavia1977; IX: p. 51-98
Antiqvitates Americanæ sive Scriptores Septentirionales rerum ante-Columbianarum in America: Samling af de i Nordens Oldskrifter indeholdte Efterretninger om de gamle Nordboeres Opdagelsesrejser til America fra det 10de til det 14de Aarhundredeed. C. C. Rafnp. 84-167
Arthur M. ReevesThe Finding of Wineland the Good1967; p. 104-121
Sagorna om Vinland, Stockholm studies in Scandinavian philology, Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingared. Sven B. F. Jansson1945; LX: p. 26-81
Eiríks saga rauða og Flatøbogens Grőnlendingaþáttr samt Uddrag fra Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar, STUAGNLed. Gustav Storm1891; XXI
Niðrlag sögu Ólafs konungs Tryggvasonar með tilheyrandi þáttum, Fornmanna sögur1827; III
Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Aevied. Jacobus Langebek1772; I-VIII
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian Kålund
Marius KristensenNokkur blöð úr Hauksbók : Et Færøsk håndskrift fra o. 1300 undersøgt og bestemt med hensyn til dets sprogform
Hauksbók: the Arna-Magnæan Manuscripts 371, 4to, 544, 4to, and 675 4to, ed. Ejnar Munksgaard1960; V
Stefán Karlsson“Aldur Hauksbókar”, Fróðskaparrit1964; XIII: p. 114-121
1999
Otto B. BekkenAlgorismus i Hauksbók i europeisk perspektiv
Otto B. BekkenOn the CUBUS PERFECTUS of the Algorismus in Hauksbók
Jón Helgason“Til Hauksbóks historie i det 17. århundrede”, p. 1-48
P. A. Munch“Om Ridderen og Rigsraaden Hr. Hauk Erlendssøn, Islands, Olslo og Gulathings Lagmand og om hans litteraire Virksomhed”, Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie1847; p. 169-216
Theodor MöbiusVerzeichniss der auf dem Gebiete der Altnordischen Sprache und Literatur von 1855 bis 1879 erschienenen Schriftenp. 67-69
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