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Manuscript Detail

AM 66 fol.

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Hulda; Iceland, 1350-1375

Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
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Name
Magnúss Þórhallsson 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Þórður Árnason 
Occupation
 
Roles
recipient 
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Name
Narfeyri 
Parish
Skógarstrandarhreppur 
County
Snæfellsnessýsla 
Region
Vestfirðingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Nikulás Oddsson 
Birth
1555 
Occupation
Lögréttumaður 
Roles
Annotator; Poet 
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Name
Dalasýsla 
Region
Vestfirðingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Guðmundur Skagfjörð 
Birth
28 October 1758 
Death
17 September 1844 
Occupation
Typographer 
Roles
Author; Scribe; Printer; Correspondent 
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Name
Louis-Jensen, Jonna 
Birth
1936 
Occupation
Professor 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Jón Hákonarson 
Occupation
Farmer; Chieftain 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Einar Oddsson 
Birth
1450 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Arngrímur Jónsson Vídalín ; lærði 
Birth
1568 
Death
27 June 1648 
Occupation
Priest, Rector Officialis; Rector 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Poet; Translator; Marginal 
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Name
Gísli Þórðarson 
Birth
1545 
Death
1619 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner; Marginal 
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Name
Jón Steinþórsson 
Birth
1609 
Death
18 February 1672 
Occupation
Lögréttumaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Steindór Gíslason 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Bjarni Pétursson 
Birth
1613 
Death
16 April 1693 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Hákon Árnason 
Death
1699 
Occupation
Lögréttumaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Mýrasýsla 
Region
Vestfirðingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Borgarfjarðarsýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Árni Hákonarson 
Occupation
Stúdent; Skrifari 
Roles
Scribe; Owner 
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Name
Þormóður Torfason 
Birth
27 May 1636 
Death
31 January 1719 
Occupation
Sagnaritari 
Roles
Owner; Scholar; Marginal 
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Name
Copenhagen 
Country
Denmark 
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LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURLLATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURL

Special character shown similar to its original form.

Name
Þórður Jónsson 
Death
27 October 1670 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Owner; Marginal 
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Name
Sigurður Jónsson 
Birth
1618 
Death
04 March 1677 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Jón Hákonarson 
Birth
1658 
Death
1748 
Occupation
Farmer 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Hannes Björnsson 
Birth
1631 
Death
1704 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Owner; Scribe; Marginal 
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Name
Halldór Jónsson 
Birth
1626 
Death
15 May 1704 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Marginal; Owner; Scribe; Poet 
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Name
Helgi Grímsson 
Birth
1622 
Death
02 August 1691 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe; Author 
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Name
Brynjólfur Sveinsson 
Birth
14 September 1605 
Death
05 August 1675 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Correspondent; Marginal 
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Name
Jón Erlendsson 
Death
01 August 1672 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Guðrún Hákonardóttir 
Birth
1659 
Death
1745 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Páll Ámundason yngsti 
Birth
1650 
Death
1703 
Occupation
Lögréttumaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Guðríður Stefánsdóttir 
Birth
1639 
Death
14 February 1728 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Magnus the Good 
Birth
1024 
Death
19 October 1047 
Occupation
 
Roles
Official 
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Name
Hannes Halldórsson 
Birth
04 February 1668 
Death
30 November 1731 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Owner; Scribe 
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Name
Ásgeir Jónsson 
Death
27 August 1707 
Occupation
Scribe 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Þórður Jónsson 
Birth
1672 
Death
21 August 1720 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Poet; Owner 
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Name
Páll Jónsson Vídalín 
Birth
1667 
Death
18 July 1727 
Occupation
Lögmaður; Attorney 
Roles
Owner; Author; Poet; Marginal 
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Name
Ögmundur Ögmundsson 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Sigurður Björnsson 
Birth
01 February 1643 
Death
03 September 1723 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner; Scribe 
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Name
Jón Magnússon 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
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Contents

1(2r-141v)
HeimskringlaNoregs konunga sǫgur
Incipit

eigi konung j fylkingu. hann leitar einum.

Explicit

ok hann myndí vera þvi meirí hermaðr en jarl sem hann var yngri

Final Rubric

ok lykr her at segía | fra þeim Magnusi konungi ok erlingi jarlí”

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
i + 140 + i. Fol. 142 and the bottom half of fol. 141 are originally left blank. 269 mm x 185 mm
Foliation

Fols 2-142 are provided with a double foliation in the upper right-hand corner of the recto pages: a foliation in black ink from 1 to 139 because two leaves have been numbered 117, and a foliation in red ink by Kristian Kålund from 2 to 141, the fly-leaves bearing the numbers 1 and 142. In addition, an older, incomplete foliation (from the seventeenth century) is found on the verso side of every twentieth leaf up to fol. 80 (in Kålund's foliation fol. 81). The descripion of collation above refers to the red foliation.

Fols 2-142 are foliated twice in the upper right-hand corner of the rectos. The first foliation is done with black ink from 1-139 (two leaves are foliated 117). The second foliation is Kålund’s foliation in red ink from 2-141. The flyleaves are foliated 1 and 142, respectively.

An older and incomplete foliation on the versos of every twentieth leaf, up to fol. 80 (Kålund’s foliation: 81), from the seventeenth century is also found. In the following description of the collation, the numbers of Kålund’s foliation are used.

Collation

There are seventeen extant gatherings. The original first quire, presumably consisting of six leaves, is now lost. Thus, the collation is as follows:

  • fol. 1 (flyleaf), presumably added when the codex was bound.
  • I: fol. 2-11 (10 leaves), both fols 2 and 11 once formed a conjoint leaf, but they have come apart.
  • II-XVI: each quire consists of 8 leaves.
  • XVII: one quire of 11 leaves; the first (fol. 132) is a single leaf. Presumably fols 135 and 140 were conjoint but they have now come apart.
  • fol. 142 (flyleaf)

Condition

The manuscript is in a rather poor condition, not merely because of the wearing and darkening of the parchment, but also because of damp and rot. Considerable portions of the manuscript have crumbled away, especially along the spine, and white patches cover some of the writing. Another result of this is that fols 135 and 140, originally a conjoint pair, are now separate, and that the two innermost pairs in the last gathering, fols 136-139, are only just still connected. In order to repair this decay, parchment strips with Latin text have been sewn into the back of the last gathering, and the text has been filled in by writing on these strips or in the margin. Before fol. 2 there is a lacuna that seems to have consisted of 6 leaves. Fol. 2v is almost illegible because of wear. According to Árni Magnússon's notes in AM 435 a 4to, large parts of the book were already damaged and had begun to rot (“vida skiemt og fuin”) in the 1670s.

Layout

The manuscript is written in a single column with 33 lines per page; however, fol. 112v has 32 lines. The initials are either red with blue-green ornament or blue-green with red ornament. These colours are very faded, particularly compared with the black ink which is used for writing. The rubrics are also faded.

Script

With the exception of two lines at the bottom of fol. 51v,the entire manuscript is written in an Icelandic Gothic bookhand by one unknown scribe. The writing is regular and the orthography is exceptionally consistent.

The last two lines on fol. 51v are written in a hand, not much younger than the first. The hand has been identified as that of the priest Magnús Þórhallsson, one of the two scribes of Flateyjarbók.

Additions

There are numerous marginalia in the manuscript but a large part of them are either wholly or partly illegible. Two marginalia can be dated to c. 1500: fol. 5v: “Einar oss son a mig seier her” and fol. 124v, bottom margin, next to a drawing of a man with a crown(?): “her er bardr jon son”. Almost all of the remaining marginalia are from the seventeenth century or later. Louis-Jensen p. 19-21 divided the marginalia into five different groups:

  • Personal names which do not shed much light on the history of the manuscript - despite the fact that the names can be identified. Included in this group are the marginalia from the time the manuscript was in Snæfellsnes e.g. the note on fol. 74v: “Gud were med þier minn gode win Þorður Arnna sonn” and 123r: “Nikulas Oddsson”. These two men are presumably Þórður Árnason who lived at Narfeyri in Snæfellsnes and lögréttumaður Nikulás Oddsson, who lived at Kjallaksstaðir in Dalasýsla and subsequently at Brekkubær, near Hellnar (Snæfellsnes).
  • Attempts at filling in lacunae or copying difficult parts of the text.
  • Marginalia connected to the text in various ways, including marginalia by Guðmundur Jónsson (1758-1844), the man Árni Magnússon assume might have copied Hulda; headings on fol. 100v, 103r, 118r and 135r and marginalia dating events from the text (bl. 94r and 119r).
  • Illegible text on fols 5r, 44r, 49r (before “asgrimur”), 54r, 66r, 98r, 104r, 122v and 126r.
  • Pen trials and scribbles on the bottom half of 141v and all of 142r, both originally blank. These are for the most part so faded that they are illegible. On 141v, after the end of the saga, written in a hand from the sixteenth or the seventeenth century is a short synopsis of the story of the following period of which only a few words can be discerned. On fol. 142r more pen trials, and an alphabet and two notes (“Eiginn hand” og “haffa ffleire”) can be read. Also a list of Norwegian kings, in the same hand, is found in the upper left-hand corner. The hand is similar to the one that wrote the historical synopsis: “Suerrer kongur hann var son Sygurdar kongs haralldz sonar | Magnus kongs berfættz Olafs sonur | haralldz sonar Gullkambs | Sygurdar sonar Syrs | haldanar sonar hrijsa | Sygurdar sonar. | haralldz sonar harfaga | sygurdar sonar hiartar”.

A large irregular hand from the seventeenth century added a number of rubrics over certain þættir. The same hand wrote: “þesse þättur | öskrifadur | ok allt hier efter” in the right margin of fol. 86r. This indicates that the marginalia are written by a scribe who at least copied the first part of Hulda or the þættir of the sagas.

Binding

The original binding consists of two thick wooden boards attached to the spine with thick cords. Size of binding: 271 mm x 196 mm x 89 mm. Each of the book's gatherings is fastened separately to these transverse cords with consecutive stitching lengthwise, which, by crossing over from one gathering to another, also serves to fasten one gathering to the next at the top and bottom. The upper board is most likely of oak wood; the lower board is of beech wood.

History

Origin

The manuscript was written in Eyjafjörður, Iceland, and has been dated twice: Kristian Kålund () dated it to the fourteenth century, while Louis-Jensen ( p. 14) dated it to the third quarter of the fourteenth century.

Provenance

The manuscript possibly belonged to Jón Hákonarson of Víðidalstunga. It is thought that he owned Hulda before he commissioned — Flateyjarbók.

“Einar oss son a mig seier her” can be read in the margin of fol. 5v. This man was presumably Einar Oddsson of Hof in Vatnsdalur, who was the sýslumaður for Húnavatnssýsla c. 1500. The next known event in the manuscript's history is when Arngrímur Jónsson lærði (1568-1648) used it for his work on Supplementum Historiæ Norvagicæ at Hólar in 1595-97, but it is not known who owned it at the time.

Árni Magnússon has made various notes about the owners of Hulda in AM 435a 4to, fol. 42v. The first of these that Árni knows of is Gísli Þórðarson lögmaður (✝ 1619) who owned it c. 1600. Gísli's grandson, Jón Steindórsson (1609-72), wrote his name in the book in 1624, from which Árni concludes that his father, sýslumaður Steindór Gíslason (✝ 1668), must have owned it. The manuscript's next owner was, according to Árni Magnússon, Bjarni Pétursson sýslumaður (1613-1693), who lived at Staðarhóll in Dalasýsla. After — Hulda had arrived in Bjarni Pétursson's ownership, the most tumultuous period in the manuscript's history began. From Staðarhóll it went to Bjarni's son-in-law, Hákon Árnason of Vatnshorn at Stóravatnshorn in Haukadalur, and from Vatnshorn it was lent further, first openly and then secretly for the next 10-15 years (1660s and 1670s) from farm to farm in Mýrasýsla and Borgarfjarðarsýsla, until Hákon Árnason eventually managed to get it back (for a more detailed account, see Árni Magnússon's description below). Hákon's son Árni Hákonarson was for a short while Torfæus' amanuensis in Stangeland in Norway, and Hákon lent him the manuscript. Árni Hákonarson then sold — Hulda to Árni Magnússon in Copenhagen in 1687.

In AM 435 a 4to, fol. 42v can be read: “Noregs konunga Sogur, (incipere debent | in Jarozlao Russiæ Rege) folio | minori. bokina hefi eg feing-|ed af Arna Hakonarsyne, enn | hann af fodur sinum, Hakoni Ar-|nasyne ä Vatzhorne. Hakon | eignadizt hana (sem mier er sagt) | fra Stadarhöle. A Spatiunne | stendr i einum stad: Jon Stein-|þorsson 1624. þessa bok koll-|udu þeir i Borgarfirde fyrrum | Huldu.”

Fols 47r-52r, which are later additions, contain further information about the manuscript, principally about its earlier owners and copies of it (footnotes are given in square brackets): “Noregs konunga Sogurnar (Huldu) feck | Hakon Arnason ä Vatzhorne, til | eignar frä Stadarhole. Liede þær | sidan Sira Þorde i Hitardal. Sira | Þordur liedi ut af sier Sigurde | Jonssyne Logmanni, hver bokinne | eigi villde leinge aptur skila, hver-|ki Hakoni nie Sira Þorde. Rela-|tio Jons Hakonarsonar.# [ # Hier um anno 1663 utvegade þessa | bok Sira Hannes Biornsson þä prestur | ä Myrum, og liede hana Sira | Halldore Jonssyne i Reykhollti. Hann Sira= | =Helga Grimssyne ä Husafelle, hver | hana uppskrifade 1664. Epter | Exemplare Sira Helga skrifade Sira | Halldor i Reykhollte, annad Ex-|emplar Anno 1666. Allt þetta um | bökar länen, var i pukri, og atti æred | hliott ad fara. Mag. Bryniolfur hefur lated Sira | Jon i Villingahollte afskrifa þessa | bok, og ä eg þad Exemplar | in folio. | Jon Hakonarson skrifadi og eitt | exemplar af bokinne, adur hun | siglde. Þad eignadizt Gudrun | Hakonardotter (Pall Amundason) | og af Gudrunu feck eg (Arne | Magnusson) bokena, er in 4to.] | Anno 1671. Þä Þormodur Torfason var | sidarst ä Islandi, sä hann þessa kalf skinns bok hia | Sigurde Jonssyne, Logmanne, hver ed | hana kallade: Huldu. Kannazt ok | ennnu nockrer i Borgarfirde vid þetta | hennar bokarinnar nafn. Seint ä dogumm Sigurdar Logmanns kom bok-|in aptur i hond Hakoni Arna-|syne, og var þä vida skiemd og | fuin. I minu (Arna Magnussonar) | ungdæmi var hun til läns i Hvammi | i Hvamms sveit. Sidan liedi Hakon | Arnason þessa bok, til Noregs, syne | sinum Arna Hakonarsyne, sem þä | var Amanuensis Þormodar Torfa-|sonar. Arne færde fra Norege | med sier bokina til Kaupenhafnar | og selldi mier 1687. | Þessa bok (Huldu) hafde fyrrum ätt Gisle | Þordarson Logmadur. Jons Stein|dorssonar nafn stendur ä henne, og | mun hann hafa þottst hana eiga epter | Steindor Gislason. Gisle Magnussson ä Hlidarenda villde nä til | bokarinnar, ex Jure Gudrunar | Gisladottur, modur sinnar. | Biarne Petursson mun hafa ord-|ed handhafe ad bökinne under | Jokle, þä hann hafde Stapaum-|bod. Noregs konunga Sogurnar | ä pergament in 4to, liedi Biar-|ne Petursson Sigurdi Jonssyni | logmanne, Sira Hannes Biorns-|son, þä prestur i Borgarþingum, | näde bokinne i Einarsnese, | (volente vel inscio Sigurdo) | og liedi hana Sira Halldore | i Reykhollte, Sira Halldor | feck hana i hendur Sira | Helga ä Husafelle, og kollu-|du þeir bokina, ut ur þessu, | Huldu. Sira Helge skrifadi | bokina upp fyrer sig (α) [ α] þad exemplar var in 4to. | Og ä eg þad nu, feinged af | Gudride Stefansdottur.] og epter þvi exemplare | skrifadi Sira Halldor fyrer sig annad exemplar (β.) [ β.] er in 4to. og ä þad nu 1711 | Sira Hannes Halldorsson.] Gud-|mundur Jonsson, broder Sig-|urdar logmanns, skrifade og | eitt exemplar fyrer sig, (| δ.] er övist hvert hann skrifad hafi | epter kalfskinnsbokinne, eda | bok Sira Helga). [δ.] Exemplar Gudmundar | seiger Sira Hannes gaud-|rängt vered hafa, ok þad | er so i sannleika. Epter | þvi skrifadi Sira Magnus | i Hvamme sitt exemplar | in 4to. Og er þad eins onytt. | Exemplar Gudmundar er i Saurbæ ä Kialarnese.] Þegar | Sira Helge bokina afskrifad | hafde, var henne aptur-|skilad til Einarsness. Og | tandem tok Hakon ä Vatz-|horne hana þar (γ) [ γ.] i Einarsnese meinar | Sira Hannes Hakon bokina | teked hafa.] ap|tur vegna Biarna Peturs | sonar. Relatio Sira Hann -|esar i Reykhollte 1711. Eg liet asgeir Jonsson upp-|skrifa pergamentsbokina i | Kaupenhafn, med ollum bond-|unum eins og þar stendur. og | gaf eg sidan þad exemplar | Sira Þordi ä Stadarstad, Er | in folio. | Copiu af þessu, Sira Þordar Ex-|emplare ä logmadur Pall Jons-|son Widalin med hendi Ögmundar | Ögmundzsonar, er og in folio. Af Noregs konga Sogunum | er Bordfirdingar fyrrum | kolludu Huldu ä Log-|madurenn Sigurdur Biorns-|son Copie, skrifada med | hendi Gudmundar Sal. | Jonssonar. er in 4to. | vidi 1703, i Saurbæ ä Kia-|larnese, er vïda rangt | skrifud og stundum af-|lagislega oriett in no-|minibus propriis. | Efter þessu Sigurdar logmannzexemplare hefur skrifad | Sira Magnus Magnusson | i Hvamme, er þad hans | exemplar og i 4to. (vidi) | ocorrect eins ok hitt, | og likast nockru verra. | Sira Magnuss Exemplar | eignadest epter hann | daudann Jon sonur hans | hæc ultima scripsi 1723. Annadhvórt Hulda eda Copi-|an Sira Helga sem ur henne | deriveradist mun vera upp-|rune til Husafellsbökar Nafnz-|ins, og so allt vera i villu umm | þessa nafngipt, sem fyrst er | komin frä Svïum.”

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon acquired Hulda in 1687 from Árni Hákonarson, according to the information given in AM 435 a 4to.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 10 November 1999 by EW-J.

Custodial History

The manuscript was photographed for the facsimile edition.

Supplementary photographs on plates of fols 2r, 20r, 27v.

Surrogates

microfilm (master) Neg. 1023 21 December 2000 Before restoration microfilm (arhive) Neg. 922 23 January 2001 Fols. 8v and 53r are missing b/w prints AM 66 fol. 5 January 2001 A4 103% microfilm Neg. 1016 3 May 2001 Supplementary photographs of fol. 8v and 53r b/w prints AM 66 fol. 3 May 2001 A4 1:1 diapositive pocket no 2s.d.For display 70 mm 26s.d.During restoration? plate pl. 58 negs.d.During restoration. Fols 2r, 20r, 27v plate pl. 58 pos 10 June 2004 During restoration. Fols 2r, 20r, 27v plate TS pl. 58 10 June 2004 During restoration. Fols 2r, 20r, 27v; security copies to Terkelskov diapositive 107 + 108 13 April 2000 6x6" standard portraits; spread: 1v-2r; fols 36r, 60r, 100v, and 136r b/w prints AM 66 fol. 13 April 2000 microfilm TS 107 + 108 13 April 2000 Security copies to Terkelskov

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
Saga Magnúsar góða ok Haralds harðráða ok sona hans, Fornmanna sögur1831; VI
Antiquités Russesed. C. C. RafnII: p. 19-76
Fire og Fyrretyve for en stor Deel forhen utrykte Prøver af oldnordisk Sprog og Litteratured. Konráð Gíslasonp. 492-499 (chapter XXXII)
Sigurd Ranessöns Procesed. Gustav Stormp. 1-29
Hulda, Sagas of the Kings of Norway 1035-1177: Manuscript No. 66 Fol. in The Arnamagnæan Collection, Early Icelandic Manuscripts in Facsimileed. Jonna Louis-Jensen1968; VIII
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian Kålund
Jonna Louis-JensenKongesagastudier: Kompilationen Hulda-Hrokkinskinna, 1977; XXXII
2000
2001
2001
2001
2001
2004
2004
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2000
Sturlunga saga Including the Islendinga Saga of Lawman Sturla Thordsson and other Worksed. Guðbrandur Vígfússon1878; I
Corpvs Poeticvm Boreale: The Poetry of the Old Northern Tongue, from the Earliest Times to the Thirteenth Centuryed. F. York Powell, ed. Guðbrandur VigfússonI: p. l
Arngrimi Jonae opera latine conscripta, ed. Jakob Benediktsson1950-1957; IX-XII
Konrad MaurerUeber die Ausdrücke: Altnordische, altnorwegische und isländische Sprachep. 668-689
Magnus Olsen“En Skjemtehistorie af Harald Hardråde”, 1953; p. 1-22
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