Handrit.is
 

Manuscript Detail

AM 242 fol.

View Images

Codex Wormianus (Snorra Edda with additions); Iceland, 1340-1370

LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R WITH DOT ABOVELATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R WITH DOT ABOVE

Special character shown similar to its original form.

This special character is not currently recognized (U+ef91).

Name
Sveinn Jónsson 
Birth
26 November 1603 
Death
13 January 1687 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Marginal; Poet 
More Details
Name
Magnús Ólafsson 
Birth
1573 
Death
22 July 1636 
Occupation
Priest; Poet 
Roles
Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details
Name
Worm, Ole 
Birth
13 May 1588 
Death
31 August 1654 
Occupation
Doctor, Professor 
Roles
Owner; Correspondent; Scribe; Translator; Annotator; Official; Author; Scholar 
More Details
Name
Jón Ólafsson ; Grunnavíkur-Jón 
Birth
16 August 1705 
Death
17 July 1779 
Occupation
Scholar 
Roles
Scribe; Author 
More Details
Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
More Details
Name
Guðbrandur Þorláksson 
Death
20 July 1627 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Author; Translator 
More Details
Name
Jón Sigfússon 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Arngrímur Jónsson Vídalín ; lærði 
Birth
1568 
Death
27 June 1648 
Occupation
Priest, Rector Officialis; Rector 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Poet; Translator 
More Details
Name
Jón Þorkelsson Vídalín 
Birth
21 March 1666 
Death
30 August 1720 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Scribe; Author; Correspondent 
More Details
Name
Einar Hafliðason 
Birth
07 September 1307 
Death
14 September 1393 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Author; Scribe 
More Details
Name
Breiðabólsstaður 
Parish
Sveinsstaðahreppur 
County
Austur-Húnavatnssýsla 
Region
Norðlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
More Details
Name
Jón Hákonarson 
Occupation
Farmer; Chieftain 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Þorkell Arngrímsson 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Árni Einarsson 
Birth
1620 
Death
1686 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Owner 
More Details
Name
Loftur Guttormsson ; ríki 
Death
1432 
Occupation
Hirðstjóri 
Roles
Poet 
More Details
Name
Ormur Loptsson 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scribe 
More Details
Name
Sigurður Stefánsson 
Birth
27 March 1744 
Death
24 May 1798 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Correspondent; Scribe; recipient 
More Details
Name
Willum, Worm, 
Birth
11 September 1633 
Death
17 March 1704 
Occupation
Librarian, justitiarus 
Roles
Owner; Annotator 
More Details
Name
Worm, Christen 
Birth
10 June 1672 
Death
09 October 1737 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Owner; Author; Correspondent; Scribe 
More Details
Name
Hufnagel, Silvia Veronika 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar; student 
More Details
Name
Fazlic, Natasha 
Occupation
 
Roles
conservator 
More Details

Contents

1(pp. 2-82)
Snorra Edda
Language of Text

Icelandic

Keywords
1.1(pp. 2-8:19)
Prologue
Incipit

ALmattigr guð skapaði i vpphafí himín ok iorð

Explicit

“af annaRí túngu eru gefen en þessi.”

1.2(pp. 8:20-39)
Gylafginning
Incipit

Gylfi konungr reð þar londum er nu heiter suiþioð

Explicit

“þui at tyrker voru hans ener mestu v uínír.,.”

1.3(pp. 40-43:29)
Bragaræður
Incipit

Einn maðr er nefndr æger eða hler

Explicit

“Sua ok at kalla reiðar ty.”

1.4(pp. 43:29-44:31)
Epilogue
Incipit

Enn þetta er nu at segia | vngum skalldum

Explicit

“enn | raku brott elenum

1.5(pp. 44:31-82)
Skáldskaparmál, Part 1
Incipit

Nv skal l?ta hæyra dæmí til huernueg | hofuð skalldín hafa l?tið ser lika

Explicit

“at hallda hillditannz | hinn milldí”

Note

Skáldskaparmál continues on p. 121.

2(pp. 83-119)
The four Grammatical Treatises
Language of Text

Non

Keywords

2.1(p. 83)
Prologue
Incipit

Nv um hrið hefr sagt uerit huersu kenna skal þa luti sem frammi standa

Explicit

“að sia huað yðr er nu synt i þessum frasǫgnum.”

2.2(pp. 84-90)
The First Grammatical Treatise
Incipit

J flestum landum setia menn a bækr annat tueggia þann froðleik

Explicit

“þat er | honum likar betr. [followed by the alphabet]”

2.3(pp. 91:7-94:7)
The Second Grammatical Treatise
Incipit

Nv firi þuî at maðrinn se skynsamlegum anda skryddr

Explicit

“sa er lifer ok riker | æinn guð of allar allder verallda amen.”

Note

The first six lines of the page are left blank.

2.4(pp. 94:8-111:17)
The Third Grammatical Treatise
Incipit

Hlioð er allt þat er vm kuikendis æyru ma hæyra.

Explicit

“þau er vitrer menn hafua forðvm saman sett”

2.5(pp. 111:18-119)
The Fourth Grammatical Treatise
Incipit

Protheseos paraloge verðr þa er ǫnnur prepoisitio stendr

Explicit

“huat nytr heilsa bǫtnut huat sytr fira lyti.”

Bibliography
1.6(pp. 121a-136a:31)
Skáldskarpamál, Part 2
Incipit

De synonymis simplicibus

Hüernig er o kend setning skalldskapar? Süa | ad nefna hüern hlüt sem heiter.

Explicit

“drifandi alf rød|øll oc düalins leica”

Note

This is the continuation of p. 82.

3(pp. 136a:32-152)
Háttatal
Rubric

“DE NÜMERO Pöe|tico.”

Incipit

Hüad ero hettir scalld|scapar? þrent

Explicit

“steine | studd enn stillis lof.”

Final Rubric

“FINIS”

Language of Text

Non

Keywords
4(pp. 155-156)
Rígsþula
Incipit

Sua segia menn í fornum sǫgum at einn huerr af áásu

Explicit

“at riða egg at kenna under riufa.”

Language of Text

Non

Keywords
5(pp. 167-169)
Orms-Eddu-brot
Incipit

nar hetu þeir menn er fylgðu braga konungi hinum gamla.

Explicit

“ofan lausa strind aurriða strandar stallz af”

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

Physical Description

Support

Parchment and paper.

No. of leaves
i + i + i + 89 (63 parchment, 26 paper). Pp. 1, 72, 153-154, 157-166 and 171-176 are blank. 280 mm x 202 mm.
Foliation

All uneven pages are paginated, in addition the even pages 2, 76, 82-100, 106-112, 120, 128-130 and 136-152. The pagination probably was done in the eighteenth century.

Collation

The manuscript consists of ten gatherings:

  • I: 8 leaves (pp. 1-16), bifolios, complete.
  • II: 8 leaves (pp. 17-32), bifolios, complete.
  • III: 8 leaves (pp. 33-48), bifolios, complete.
  • IV: 8 leaves orginally (pp. 49-60 and 73-76, bifolios, six inserted paper leaves (pp. 61-72) between the sixth and seventh parchment leaves of the original gathering.
  • V: 8 leaves (pp. 77-92), bifolios, complete.
  • VI: 7 leaves (pp. 93-106), the fourth leaf is a singleton, the others are bifolios, complete.
  • VII: 7 leaves originally (pp. 107-120), the first is a singleton, the others are bifolios, nine inserted paper leaves (pp. 121-138) after the last parchment leaf. Karl G. Johansson (Studier i Codex Wormianus p. 26-27) doubts the gathering has ever consisted of 8 leaves instead of 7.
  • VIII: 6 leaves (pp. 139-150), bifolios, complete. Tarrin Wills, however, states that the gathering originally consisted of 8 leaves and that 2 leaves are therefore missing now (The Foundation of Grammar p. 44, table 3).
  • IX: 1 leaf originally (?) (pp. 155-156), two inserted paper leaves (pp. 151-154) before the parchment leaf, and five (pp. 157-166) after it.
  • X: 2 leaves originally (?) (pp. 167-170), bifolio, four inserted paper leaves (pp. 171-178) after the parchment bifolio. Sigurður Nordal (Codex Wormianus 1931 p. 5) supposes that the three last parchment leaves (pp. 155-156 and 167-170) were part of one gathering of 8 leaves, five of them now missing.

Condition

Many of the folios have holes in them, but usually with little loss of text. On some folios there are tears, e.g. p. 23/24. On p. 85/86 the outer bottom corner is cut away.

Sveinn Jónsson (1603-87) cleaned the manuscript with urine, with the result that the chapter headings and many marginalia and initials vanished or became illegible.

On p. 120 the left half of lines 1-23 are now illegible, due to the glue of a piece of paper that once was pasted over them.

Layout

The original part of the manuscript, pp. 2-60, 73-76, 77-120, 139-150, 155-156 and 167-170, is written in long lines throughout with 31 to 32 lines to the page. The later inserted paper leaves pp. 121-138, however, are written in two columns with 39 to 47 lines per column, except for pp. 151-152 which are written in one column with 26 lines to the page.

In the original part of the manuscript spaces for chapter headings and initials have been left blank, and not all of them have been filled in by a contemporary scribe. Initials are red or red and green. Sveinn Jónsson filled in Latin chapter headings with black ink.

Script

The hand of the original part of the manuscript is identical with the hand of Vǫluspá on fols 20r-21r in AM 544 4to (Hauksbók), — Egils saga in AM 162 a β fol. and some other manuscripts.

Sveinn Jónsson (or Magnús Ólafsson?) wrote pp. 121-138 in 1635-37.

Ole Worm may have written pp. 61-71 and 151-152.

Decoration

There are five large initials. On p. 2 the beginning of Snorra Edda is marked with a large A, a littera florissa with a descender running down the whole left margin to the bottom margin. On p. 17 there is another littera florissa with a long, but now faded descender. There are litterae florissae on pp. 40, 9494 155, but without descenders.

Additions

There are many marginalia and additions, the earliest of them dating from the fifteenth century.

The inserted paper leaves pp. 121-138 were written in 1635-37 by Sveinn Jónsson (1603-87) who also wrote some lines on p. 56 and added chapter headings in Latin. Jón Ólafsson frá Grunnavík added numerous chapter headings, glosses, summaries, etc. in the part of the manuscript concerning the Grammatical Treatises. On p. 99 a correction of the text was done by Árni Magnússon.

On the originally blank p. 120 (lines 1-23) we find a a poem to the Virgin Mary (lines 1-23). The left half of the lines are now illegible, because a sheet of paper once glued over the lines destroyed the ink. Below the poem there are verses, one of them from Hávamál, and glossars. On p. 170 (lines 1-23) we find another poem to the Virgin Mary , from the middle of the fourtheenth century, written by the scribe of the other poem to the Virgin (Edda Snorra Sturlusonar 1848-87 vol. III.2 p. xlviii-xlix). There verse underneath the poem to the Virgin was printed in Corpvs Poeticvm Boreale vol. I p. xlv, footnote 1. It was, however, written by a different hand. On the same page “þetta er edda” is written in the bottom, and also — Edda is written a couple of times.

Beside a lot of (rather coarsely drawn) ornaments, there are many doodlings, scribbles and single letters or words found in the marginalia. A man in a short cloak and with a sword is drawn on p. 60. On every parchment page every fifth line is numbered, and often there are chapter numbers.

On p. 147 in the bottom margin there is the monogram of bishop Guðbrandur Þorláksson, and above it has been read by Finnur Jónsson (Edda Snorra Sturlusonar 1924 p. i-ii) “Jon Sigm”, Jón Sigmundsson, the bishop's grandfather. On p. 76 in the bottom margin “gunlaugr ormsson med eigin hand” is written. A Gunnlaugur Ormsson is a distant relative of Arngrímur Jónsson. On p. 1 Ole Worm (1588-1654) wrote “Olai Wormii | Dono Arngrime jonæ | Islandi” in the bottom margin.

Binding

The book was probably rebound by the ammanuensis of Ole Worm, Sveinn Jónsson in 1635-37, when he washed the manuscript and filled in some lacunae with paper leaves. The parchment binding measures: 288 mm x 207 mm x 50 mm.

History

Origin

Karl G. Johansson (Studier i Codex Wormianus p. 11-18) argues that the main part of the manuscript was written in the scriptorum of the monastery at Þingeyrar in Húnavatnssýsla, Northern Iceland between 1340 and 1370. Pp. 121-138 were written in 1635-37 by Sveinn Jónsson, one of the owners of the codex.

Provenance

There are many speculations about the provenance of the manuscript until c. 1500. Jón Sigmundsson, (c. 1460-1520), lögmaður of Northern and Western Iceland (1509-18), who wrote his name on p. 147.

Finnur Jónsson (Edda Snorra Sturlusonar 1924 p. i-ii) assumes that Jón Sigmundsson whose name he reads on p. 147, got the manuscript from Jón Þorvaldsson, abbot of Þingeyrar and his second wife's brother. Bishop Guðbrandur þorláksson (1541/42-1627) inherited the codex then from Jón, his grandfather.

Sigurður Nordal (Codex Wormianus p. 18-19), however, provides two alternative hypotheses on the early provenance of the manuscript. The first is connected to two large book collections on Iceland, these belonging to síra Einar Hafliðason (Breiðabólsstaður in Vesturhóp, 1307-93) and Jón Hákonarsonof Víðidalstunga (c. 1350-1410, owner of Flateyjarbók). Both assumptions presuppose that Solveig Þorlefsdóttir (d. 1479) was in possession of the book and later handed it on to her son Jón Sigmundsson, the man who wrote his name on p. 147.

The first hypotesis presupposes that Einar Hafliðason gave the manuscript to his friend Jón Hákonarson of Víðidalstunga. All the literary treasures accumulated at Jón Hákonarson's house were then inherited together with the farm Víðidalstunga by his sister Guðný and left by to her son Þórleifur (d. 1433) who should also have had inherited Einar Hafliðason's libary through his father Árni (d. 1404). (Guðný was also married to Einar Hafliðason's son Árni Einarsson). After Þorleifur's death, this imposing collection of books was divided among his two children, Björn and Solveig.

The second hypothesis is connected with Loptur Guttormsson (d. 1432), to whom the two poems to the Virgin Mary on p. 120 and the last page have been ascribed (without valid proof). Solveig Þorleifsdóttir was married twice, first to Ormur Loptsson, son Loptur Guttormsson, and later to Sigmundur Steinþórsson (d. 1502). By him she had a son, Jón Sigmundsson, who inherited Víðidalstunga from his mother.

After Guðbrandur Þorláksson, his relative Arngrímur Jónsson (1568-1648) owned the manuscript from at least 1609 onwards. He used it for his Crymogæa and lent it to Magnús Ólafsson (1573-1636) who used the book for his version of the Edda, the so-called — Laufás Edda; the first edition of the Edda ( — Resens Edda) is based on this copy. In 1628 Arngrímur sent AM 242 fol. to Ole Worm who then considered the book his own (cf. p. 1, nederste margin: “Olai Wormii | Dono Arngrime jonæ | Islandi”). The codex is named — Codex Wormensis or — Ormsbók after him. Willum Worm inherited it from his father, Ole, and entailed it on his own son, Christen.

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon got the codex from Christen Worm in 1706.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 18 July 2007 by SH.

Custodial History

Washed with urine and maybe rebound by Arngrímur Jónsson in 1635-37.

Bookbind and -block drycleaned by Natasha Fazlić 8 August to 5 September 2005.

Surrogates

microfilm (master) Neg. 508 1975 only paper leaves, before restauration microfilm (archive) Pos. 508 1975 before restauration b/w prints February 1980 microfilm (master) Neg. 593 1979 supplied, during restauration b/w prints February 1980 during restauration microfilm (archive) Neg. 972 20 February 2007 plate 11 1973? before restauration plate 138s.d.supplied photographies microfilm (master) Neg. 599 1980 during restauration b/w prints September 1980 during restauration microfilm (archive) Pos. 949 18 December 2006 plate 110s.d.before restauration diapositive pocket 17 8 January 1998 coloured, 4x5", s. 18, 23, 73, 90, 95, 139 pocket 17 24 July 2003 s. 2, 84, 85, 57, 60-61, 91, 97 b/w diapositive portraits lomme 204/TS 204 27 October 2004 6x6 b/w portraits b/w diapositive portraits lomme 241/TS 241 24 April 2006 6x6 supplied portraits digital CD 7/Harddisk 1 22 February 2005 S. 33, 34, 35, 36 digtal CD 13 and 14/Harddisk 1 17 May 2005 S. 2, 8,9, 19, 33, 34, 60 ,61, 73, 84-85, 93, 120-121, 155, 156

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
Snorra-Edda ásamt Skáldu og þarmed fylgjandi ritgjörðumed. Rasmus Raskp. 1-174
Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlæi1848-1887; I-III
Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Codex Wormianus AM 242, fol.ed. Finnur Jónssonp. 1-88
Edda Snorra Sturlusonar 1931p. 1-164:17
Edda Snorra Sturlusonar, eða Gylfaginníng, Skáldskaparmál og Háttataled. Sveinbjörn Egilssonp. 144-153
Antiquités Russesed. C. C. RafnI: p. 43 (P. 6:20-21. Ed. W), 44-49 (Pp. 6:26-8:19. Ed. W)
Eddaed. Finnur Jónssonp. 3-8
Snorri SturlusonEdda: Prologue and Gylfaginninged. Anthony Faulkesp. 3-6
Snorra Eddaed. Árni Björnssonp. 3-9
Gylfaginning: Texte, Übersetzung, Kommentar, Texte zur Forschunged. Gottfried Lorenz1984; 48
Islands grammatiske Litteratur i Middelalderen II: Den tredje og fjærde grammatiske Afhandling i Snorres Edda, tilligemed de grammatiske afhandlingers Prolog og to andre Tillæg, STUAGNLed. Björn Magnússon Ólsen, ed. Verner Dahlerup1884; XII
Islands grammatiske Litteratur i Middelalderen I: Den første og anden grammatiske Afhandling i Snorres Edda, STUAGNLed. Finnur Jónsson, ed. Verner Dahlerup1886; XVI
First Grammatical Treatise: The Earliest Germanic Phonology, The Classics of Linguisticsed. Einar Haugen
Hreinn BenediktssonThe First Grammatical Treatise, University of Iceland Publications in Linguistics1972; 1
Federico Albano LeoniIl primo trattato grammaticale islandese, Studi Linguistici e Semiologici1975; V
Eugen MogkDer sogenante zweite grammatische Traktat der Snorra-Eddap. 31-36
The So-called Second Grammatical Treatise: An Orthographic Pattern of Late Thirteenth-century Icelandic, Filologia Germanicaed. Fabrizio D. Raschellà1982; II
Málhljóða- og málskrúðsrit: Grammatisk-retorisk afhandling, Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelsered. Finnur Jónsson1927; XIII:2
Tarrin WillsThe Foundation of Grammar. An edition of the first section of Ólafr Þórðarson's grammatical treatisep. 172-191 and 207-219
Hattatal Snorra Sturlusonared. Theodor Möbius1879-1881; I-II
Edda Snorra Sturlusonared. Finnur Jónssonp. 217:18-252
Edda: Háttataled. Anthony Faulkesp. 7:10-35:15
Continens carmina Vóluspá, Hávamál & Rígsmál. Ex codice Bibliothecæ Regiæ Hafniensis pergameno, nec non diversis Legati Arna-Magnæani et aliorum membraneis chartaceisqve meloris notæ manuscripts. Cum interpretatione Latina, lectionibus, variis, notis, glossario vocum etc, Edda Sæmundar hinns fróða: Edda rhytmica seu antiqvior, vulgo Sæmundina dictaed. Finnur Magnússon1828; III
Den ældre Edda: Samling af norröne Oldkvad, indeholdende Nordens ældste Gude- og Helte-Sagned. P. A. Munchp. 62-66
Die Edda: Eine Sammlung altnordischer Götter- und Heldenliedered. Hermann Lüningp. 239-249
Norrőn Fornkvæði: Islandsk samling af folkelige Oldtidsdigte om Nordens Guder og Heroer almindelig kaldet Sæmundar Edda hins Fróðaed. Sophus Buggep. 141-149
Sæmundar Edda hins fróða: Den ældre Eddaed. Svend Grundtvigp. 62-67
Sæmundar Edda: Mit einem Anhanged. F. Detter, ed. R. Heinzelp. 169-174
Die Lieder der älteren Edda Sæmundar Edda, Bibliothek der ältesten deutschen Literatur-Denkmälered. Hugo Gering, ed. Karl Hildebrand1904; VII
Die Edda: Mit historisch-kritischem Commentared. R. C. Boer1922; I-II
The Poetic Eddaed. Ursula DronkeII: Mythological Poems: p. 162-173
Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst Verwandten Denkmälern. 5. verb. Aufl.ed. Hans KuhnI: Text: p. 280-287
Karl G. JohanssonStudier i Codex Wormianus: Skrifttradition ogch avskriftsverksamhet vid ett isländsk skriptorium under 1300-talet, Nordistica Gothoburgensia1997; XX
Codex Wormianus (The Younger Edda): Ms. No. 242 fol. in The Arnemagnean Collection in the University Library of Copenhagen, ed. Sigurður Nordal1931; II
Corpvs Poeticvm Boreale: The Poetry of the Old Northern Tongue, from the Earliest Times to the Thirteenth Centuryed. F. York Powell, ed. Guðbrandur VigfússonI: p. xlv, footnote 1
1975
1975
1980
1979
1980
2007
1973
1980
1980
2006
1998
2003
2004
2006
2005
2005
Fyrsta Málfræðiritgerðin í Snorra Eddu (AM 242, fol.)ed. Hreinn Benediktsson
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian KålundI: p. 213-215
Corpus codicum Islandicorum medii aevi1930-1956; 1-20
Klaus von See [et al.]Kommentar zu den Liedern der Edda1997-2006; I-V
« »