Handrit.is
 

Manuscript Detail

AM 234 fol.

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Heilagra manna sǫgur; Iceland, 1330-1350

This special character is not currently recognized (U+ef91).

PUNCTUS ELEVATUSPUNCTUS ELEVATUS

Special character shown similar to its original form.

Name
Eyjólfur Björnsson 
Birth
06 August 1666 
Death
22 November 1746 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe 
More Details
Name
Jón Vigfússon eldri 
Birth
15 September 1643 
Death
30 June 1690 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Author 
More Details
Name
Skálholt 
Parish
Biskupstungnahreppur 
County
Árnessýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
More Details
Name
Jón Vigfússon 
Birth
1635 
Death
12 September 1714 
Occupation
District/county magistrate 
Roles
Owner; Other 
More Details
Name
Brynjólfur Sveinsson 
Birth
14 September 1605 
Death
05 August 1675 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Scholar; Owner; Author; Correspondent; Marginal 
More Details
Name
Jón Vigfússon yngri 
Birth
15 September 1643 
Death
30 June 1690 
Occupation
Bishop, sýslumaður 
Roles
Correspondent; Scribe; Other; Marginal 
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Name
Þorlákur Eiríksson 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Other 
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Name
Þormóður Torfason 
Birth
27 May 1636 
Death
31 January 1719 
Occupation
 
Roles
Owner; Scholar; Marginal 
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Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
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Name
Gunnar Eiríksson 
Death
1707 
Occupation
Student 
Roles
Other 
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Name
Oddur Jónsson 
Death
15 January 1699 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Other 
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Name
Þórður Þorláksson 
Birth
14 September 1637 
Death
16 March 1697 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Owner; Poet; Translator 
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Name
Ásgeir Jónsson 
Death
27 August 1707 
Occupation
Scribe 
Roles
Scribe 
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Name
Jón Erlingsson 
Birth
1668 
Death
1707 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Other 
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LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURLLATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CURL

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Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Tveitane, Mattias 
Birth
1927 
Death
1985 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Foote, Peter 
Birth
1924 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Bartholin, Thomas 
Birth
29 March 1659 
Death
05 November 1690 
Occupation
Antiquarian 
Roles
Author; Owner; Loaner; Correspondent; Official; Annotator 
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Name
Magnús Arason 
Birth
1684 
Death
19 January 1728 
Occupation
captain 
Roles
Owner; Author; Poet 
More Details
Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
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Name
Carlsson, Thorsten 
Occupation
 
Roles
Scholar 
More Details

Contents

1(1ra-19vb:23)
Antóníuss sagaVita beati Antonii abbatis
Author

Athanasius (Bishop of Alexandria)

Incipit

sva tamði hann sitt eiginlikt holld með meinlætvm | at ? honvmm fylltizt orð postolans. er hann segir sva.

Explicit

“ok leiði j eilifvan fagnað vaʀ hialpari drott-|inn ihesvs kristʀ. sa er með feðr | ok helgvm anda lifvir ok ri-|kir einn gvð. vm allar alldir. Amen

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. I p. 55-121

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

2(19vb:24-28vb:1)
Páls saga postola
Incipit

V er holldvm | hatið j dag sem | avllvm er kvnnict ok kvnn -|ikt ? at vera. hinvm sæla pali postola. hann var-|ðingi a gyðinga landi

Explicit

“sem gvð hefvir | fyrir bvið sinvm astvinvm. j þeiri lifvir ok rikir vaʀ her|ra ihsvs kristʀ með feðr ok helgvm anda per omnia secvla secvlorvm amen.”

Bibliography

Unger, Postola sögur p. 236:18-267:12, 271:18-279:22 Ed. A

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

3(28vb:2-55vb:30)
Maríu saga ok Maríu jartegnir
Language of Text

Non

3.1(28vb:2-25)
Miracle on the Birth of Mary
Incipit

S A atburðr er sagðr af vitrum maunnum þo at | hann standi eigi iritningum. at i þann tíma er hin dyra drotning guðs moðir maria var fœdd

Explicit

“Siðan var sia konungr siðlátʀ ok allt hans | riki var hlyðit guðs laugum,,”

Bibliography

Unger, Maríu saga p. 1022-1023.

Keywords

3.2(28vb:25-39vb:29)
Maríu saga
Incipit

S va seger jero-|nimvs prestʀ at sæl ok | dyrðlig mær maria | væri komín af konvnglig-|ri ætt. ok tok hann þat af | fra savgnn mathevs | gvðzspialla manz.

Explicit

“þat vetti oss allzvalldandi drott|inn s? er lifvirok rikir um allar alldir. Amen.”

Keywords

3.3(39vb:30-55vb:30)
Maríu jartegnir
Incipit

S A er sagðar erv iar|tegnir heilagra manna | til lofs almattigs guðs þær er hann gio|rir fyrir arnaðar orð þeira þ? er skyldvktt þeim | er til lyða at veita lof guði ímoti

Explicit

“Sia | hin sama miskvnnar mo|ðir frv sanxta maria ar|ne oss eilifrar hialpar | af almatkvm syní sinvm | ihesv cristo þeim er lifvir ok ri-|kir einn gvð vm alldir | allda”

Bibliography

Unger, Maríu saga p. 339:14-401:8, 153:3-157:20.

Keywords

4(55vb:31-67ra:16)
Jóns saga HólabiskupsJóns saga ens helgaSaga Jóns biskups hin elzta
Incipit

Har hefjvm | ver savgv eða fra|savgnn fra hinvm helga | Jon byskvpi. at i þann tíma er reð noregi ha-|ralldr sigvrðar son. en liðnir voru fra falli olafs | konvngs hinns helga. ij. vetʀ ok xx.

Explicit

“en | at liðnv þessv lifvi veiti hann oss paradisar | vist til domsdags eɴ eptir domsdag himinrikis | vist eilifva m sialfvm ser ok allvm helgvm in secvla | secvlorvm. Amen;,”

Filiation

Copied from AM 221 fol.

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

5(67ra:17-73rb)
Augustinus sagaVita de Aurelii Augustini auctore incerto
Incipit

H eilagʀ pavi celestinvs segir sælan | avgvstinvm hafa verit Agiætan | ok mykiɴ kennifavðvr. ok j | avllvm lvtvm lofsamligan talan-|di þessvm orðvm.

Explicit

“er heilvg þrenning ok almattʀ þeirar. þren-|ningar rikir ok dyrkar j sifellv sina hela menn | þeire savmv þreɴing se vegʀ ok lof ok dyrð vm | allar alldir. AMEN.”

Filiation

The saga is a transcript from AM 221 fol.. Later, Eyjólfur Björnsson copied AM 234 fol., fols. 67ra:19-71v, in AM 648 4to and fol. 72 in AM 627 4to.

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. I p. 122-142:15, 143:4-20, 144:14-145:1, 145:22-146:5, 146:28-149:3

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

6(74va-78vb)
Vitæ patrum
Author

Hieronymus

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

6.1(74va-75vb)
No Title
Incipit

Blezadr | gvð hverr er vill alla menn|ina heila gra ok til viðrkeɴ|ningar koma saɴleiksins | s? er at savnnv greiddi | varɴ veg til egiptalandz

Explicit

“Villdi hann leyna virðing | vigslv palzins fyrir litilætis sakir siandi sva dyrmæta

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. II p. 335-336:16, 337:5-338:17, 339:4-340:5, 341:2-342:9, 343:7-344:15, 345:15-347:2 Ed. C

6.2(76ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

kræsni vam bindendis manne þegar er meiʀ fylgir girnð ahvgans | en navð syn nattvrvnnar.

Explicit

“þegar j stað fellʀ til hans litil sv vneɴning”

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. II p. 356:14-365:17 Ed. C

6.3(77ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

nattvrvligrar navðsyniar þins likama. þ? mvnv þeir av-|ðvelliga veitaz.

Explicit

“trvðv sik þar gvll | nockvt finna mvndv. En heilagr theon bat þa

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. II p. 374:8-375:14, 376:18-378:1, 379-380:2, 381:5-382:10 Ed. C

6.4(78ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

talaði sialfʀ firir þvi folki er honvm hafði fylgtt ok feck sva | gertt. at allir hvrfv m friði heim hverr til sinna heim kynna.

Explicit

“þar eptir kendv þeir fæðv ok forv aptʀ j | morkina ok festv j miɴi gvðligar ritningar vm alla nott

Bibliography

Unger, Heilagra manna søgur vol. II p. 392:9-402:6 Ed. C

7(79ra-81vb)
Thómas saga erkibiskups
Language of Text

Non

Keywords

7.1(79ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

h allrar kristhinnar ok fyrir þvi er hann sannli| ga pislar vatʀ.

Explicit

“mætti hressazt af striðri | hegningv. Valete.”

Bibliography

Unger, Thomas saga Erkibyskups p. 534:9-537:22 Text G, folio 1

7.2(80ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

nvðv gvðinn þann er þ? hafði setz ok sat ? | stoli skelmis drepsins. til svivirðingar postoligv sæ|ti ok pafvanvm.

Explicit

“En | sia vndrar þetta ok spvrði hver savk til þess væ|ri er honvm var j æðra stað skipat. en hinvm helga”

Bibliography

Unger, Thomas saga Erkibyskups p. 537:24-541:8 Text G, folio 2

7.3(81ra-vb)
No Title
Incipit

þrota ok avll var hvn bolgin ofvan til knia. hvn | var þangat flvtt af tveim konvm leyniliga:

Explicit

“ok hafði við bæði bakstʀ ok bat | v plastʀ. þ? svinaði ok myktizt fotrin ok”

Bibliography

Unger, Thomas saga Erkibyskups p. 541:10-544:35 Text G, folio 3

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
81 leaves and fragment leaves. Fols 73v and 74r are blank. 440 mm x 280 mm.
Condition

Fols 1-73 are well preserved with the following exceptions:

  • a lacuna of one page between fols 26 and 27;
  • fol. 7 cut crosswise;
  • fol. 27 considerably worn;
  • fol. 72 only the lower half is preserved;
  • fols 74-81 fragmentary leaves that bear traces of their former use as a cover.

Layout

The manuscript is written in double columns with 44 lines per column. Fol. 37rb is exceptional with 45 lines; and where columns have fewer than 44 lines, they mostly close with a natural ending of a chapter (fols 9vb, 34ra, 41va, 51ra) of a letter (fol. 79vb), or of a saga (fol. 73rb). We find only 43 lines on fols 38ra and b, 51vb, and 66ra and b.

Spaces have been left empty for initials and headings, but these have not been filled in. Several of the words abbreviated by the scribe have later been underlined in red chalk.

Script

The manuscript was written by two different hands, very similar in style. Hand 1 wrote fols 1 to 61 in an Icelandic Gothic bookhand.

Hand 2 wrote fols 62 to 81, also in an Icelandic Gothic bookhand. Hand 2 looks more novice-like, less skillfull than Hand 1 in keeping lines an even length, more prone to influence from his exemplar and readier to introduce orthographic modernisms.

Additions

Seventeenth century marginalia occur in the manuscipt, mostly they comprise of names:

  • Fol. 3r “Jon Wÿgfusson”. This man could be either Jón Vigfússon eldri (c. 1638-81), sýslumaður, at school in Skálholt 1649-56; Jón Vígfusson (c. 1635-1714), sýslumaður, in service with Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson at Skálholt 1655-57; or Bishop Jón Vigfússon yngri (1643-90), at school in Skálholt for two years, probably 1661-63.
  • Fol. 9r “Þorlakur Eyriksson” (?) . If the patronymic is correctly read, this could be Þorlákur Eiríksson, who at times between 1647 and 1654 was in service with Bishop Brynjólfur; by the end of that period he was probably at school in Skálholt. He was ordained in 1666 and died c. 1695.
  • Fol. 14v, written in large letters between the columns: “Þórmóður Thórfason med eigenhende hefur þetta skrifad”, most probably this is Þormóður Thórfason (Thorfæus) who described the manuscript to Árni Magnússon (see below). Thorfæus was at school in Skálholt 1646-54.
  • Fol. 27r: “Gunnar Eyreksson”. A Gunnar Eiríksson ( c. 1678-1707), was at school in Skálholt in the 1690s.
  • Fol. 30v: “Oddur Joonsson Egh”. Oddur Jónsson (c. 1653-99) was at school in Skálholt before 1670; after working for Bishop Þórður Þorláksson (Thorlacius), he was appointed teacher at the Skálholt school in 1680 and then served as resident priest of the cathedral church 1683-88.
  • Fol. 76r: “Aüsger Jonsson”; and in the same hand: “Mynn Goodj Vyn ave vive vale”. This was presumably addressed to Þormóður Torfason's well-known amanuensis, Ásgeir Jónsson ( c. 1657-1707) who graduated from the Skálholt-school in 1679.
  • Fol. 80v: “geirmundur i skulld Jons tungu ” This Geirmundur is unidentified.
  • Fol. 81v: “Jon Erlingsson” and “Arne Torvaldsson”. Árni Torvaldsson is unidentified, but the first name could represent Jón Erlingsson (1668-1707) who became parson at Ólafsvellir in 1692.
  • Fol. 65v, between the columns in a large book-hand: “Guds son kallaʀ komid til mÿn sem kuÿdid vid ÿdar Andar pÿn og syndir Jafnann / særa menn kuinnur Alldradir og Bórn ÿdur vil eg vera nädargearn og Alla Endurnæra.” This is the beginning of a hymn first found in Ein ny Psalma Bok (1589), clxxij-clxxxiiij.
  • Fol. 66va in the lines beside lines 30-34 in a cursive hand: “Hinn heylæge Augustinus seiger” (what follows has been erased); and beside lines 38-42 in the same hand: “Vier lofumm / þann Gud / sem leyst he/fur oss wr / vanda”. The line is supposedly from a ballad that has come to Iceland from the Faroe Islands some time before the reformation.

Accompanying Material

There are five slips (a-e) bound together with the manuscript. The first two of them are written for Árni Magnússon, the last three are written in Árni's own hand.

  • a. (in folio): “ Þetta eru Fragmenta ur | Hieronÿmi vitis patrum og | Thomas Sogu Erkibiskups | Hafa einhverntima fẏlgt þvi volumini | Skalholtensi sem inneheldur | Antonii Sogu. | Päls Sogu Postula. | Mariu Sogu etc: | Eg hefe þeße Fragmenta feinged ä Islande | post annum 1702.”
  • b. (in folio): “ Þetta volumen inneheldur | Antonii Sogu cui principium deest. | Päls Sogu postula. | Mariu Sogu. | + Iöns Sogu Hölabiskups. | + Augustini Sogu | Fẏrrum hafa öefad i þessu sama volumine vered | Hieronymi vitas patrum, ut vocant, og | Thomas Saga Erkibiskups | Hefe eg ur þessum tvennum Sogum feinged nockur | fragmenta ä Islande, og er audsied af forminu, kiol|gotunum og skriftarlaginu, ad þessar Sogur hafa | nefndu volumini fẏlgt. Þad sem nu vantar framan vid þetta volumen | sẏnest ecke mune verid hafa nema eitt kver (ark) | og hefur þad þä vered upphafed ä Antonii Sogu. Þad er audsied af koppunum framan til /: og enn | betur sä eg þad, þä eg rakte ur koppunum þrädinn | til af ad festa inn hid fẏrsta kvered sem laust var ordid/: | ad ecke hafa þessar Sogur /:vitæ patrum og Thomas | Saga/: vered þar framan vid festar, þvi þar hefur | ecke framanvid vered nema eitt kver, sem ädur | er sagt, og ad vïsu ecke meira enn tvo, ef þad so | skẏllde vera; og hafa þä þessar Sogur vered aptann | vid volumen. | verte Ad vitæ patrum og Thomas Saga hafe ver|id aptan vid þetta volumen gietur ecki helldur | stadist, þvi ad kapparner sẏna þar, eins og fram-|an vid, ad þær hafa þar ecki rum feingid. Er so | lïkast til ad gieta ad bökin hafe ä nẏ uppbundin | verid og þessar tvær Sogur þä fräskildar. Enn | vïst er þad, sem ädur er sagt, ad þær hafa einhvern|tïma i þessu volumine verid. Framan ä vitis patrum er su fẏrsta sid-|an aud, hvar af rädast kann ad til hefur ætlad | vered þad hun skẏllde standa fẏrst i volumine. | Annars hefur Þormödur Torfason umm þetta | volumen mier sagt ad þad hafe til forna | /:eg true þegar hann var i Sköla, helldur enn sïdar | þä hann ä Islande var/: vered hier um þverhandar | þẏckt, og mẏnner mig hann legdi þad til, ad umm | þad leite hefde Skölapilltar og kannskie adrer, kẏpt | ur þvi blodum til ad hafa utan um bækur. | Kannskie hann hafe og sagt, ad þad hafe vered initio | mutilum þad fẏrsta hann þad sä, þö man eg þad eige | glogt. Sie þetta ecki misminne umm þẏcktena, þä hefur þetta volumen sidan verid | uppbundid, og þær tvær Sogur frä þvi skilldar, iafnvel þött kialar umm -|buningurinn sẏnest ad vera elldre enn i vorri tïd. Þegar eg var hia Bartholino, nockrum ärum | fẏrer hanns dauda, hafdi hann þetta volumen til läns | frä Mag. Þordi Þorlakssẏne. Las eg þad þä i giegn-|um og excerperade ur ollum Sogunum sem þar | inne standa, vetustiores et rariores voculas. Þä var | Augustini Saga heil, og vantade ecke i. Nu sïd-|ar, þä eg fieck bökina til läns fra Skälhollte, og | hun i annad sinn för til Danmerkur, þä vantade | eitt blad i Augustini Sogu, sem þess ä mille | hafde ur henne rifid vered ä Islande. α) [α) Somuleidis hafde ur bokinne burtkomid, mille þeß ad | Bartholin hana til läns hafde, til þeß eg hana sidan | i hendur fieck eitt blad ur Antonii Sogu og eitt | (helldur enn tvo) blod ur Päls Sogu postula. Eignad-|est eg þeße tvo blod /:og annad þar af i tveimur port-|um/: ä Islande post annum 1702. og Conjungerade | þau med bökinne.] Þar | epter barst mier i hendur helftin af þessu bladi, | sem er nedre parturinn, enn efre helmingurenn var af-|skorinn og burtu. Þennann helming hefe eg lagt i sinn | Stad innan i bökina. Og til allrar lucku er þesse | hin sama Augustini Saga heil i odrum Codice Skal-|holtensi i Litlu Folio, hvadan þeßar lacunæ kunna ad | heilu ad fẏllast, og hefe eg in altero illo codice annoterad | in margine hvar þessar Lacunæ eru i þeßum codice. | AM.”
  • c. concerns Páls saga postola: “þesse Pals Saga er eins og | su sem Eyolfur hefur | skrifad ur Skardz bok-|inne störu: nema hvad | ordum mismunar her | og hvar, og er þat til ad | reikna libertati skrif-|arans.”
  • d. concerns Maríu saga: “þesse Mariu Saga, er eins | og su i litlu 4to. sem | ritud er med Knytlinga | sogu hendi. Miracula | eru her nockud odruvis. | Sagan er her heil, og | vantar eckert i.”
  • e concerns fol. 74: “þetta fragmentum feck eg | 1724. fra Capitain Mag-|nuse Arasyne, fra Islande.”
  • There is also a note ad AM 234 fol. from a bookbinder, discovered during the cataloguing of the archive belonging to The Arnamagnæan Commission on 12 February 1982, that reads: “Desse blade maa fölge löse med Numme-|ret, som de ære. | No. 234.”

History

Origin

The manuscript was written in Iceland. Kristian Kålund (Katalog vol. I p. 194) dated the manuscript to the first half of the fourteenth century, whereas Mattias Tveitane (Den lærde stil p. 27) and Peter Foote (Jóns saga Hólabyskups ens helga p. 51* ) has dated it c. 1340.

Provenance

Names of owners are found on fols 3, 9, 27, 30v, 76 and 81. According to Árni Magnússon's account in his catalogue of Icelandic parchment manuscripts, now AM 435 a 4to, fol. 7v, and the two AM-slips, the manuscript is a fragment of a once very large codex that belonged to the Cathedral of Skálholt. According to the oral report of Torfæus, the codex was once more than twice as large (either during his time at the school or later when he lived in Iceland), but even then the pupils would sometimes steal leaves from the codex to use as covers for their exercise books. A little later, apparently, Vitæ Patrum and — Thómas saga erkibiskups were seperated from the codex and by then most of the leaves had gone missing, with the exception of a few leaves which were later rediscovered.

The rest of the codex, bound separately, was lent by Bishop Þórður Þorláksson (Thorlacius) to Thomas Bartholin, while he and Árni Magnússon were working together. This part of the manuscript has survived longer, however with some defects due to pupils stealing pages, Árni then excerpted the parts of the codex “vetustiores et rariores voculas”, hence the underlining in red chalk. By that time Ágústínus saga was supposed to have been complete. Bartholin returned the codex to Þórður Þorláksson, and several years later Árni borrowed it from the Cathedral of Skálholt. During that time — Ágústínus saga, and possibly some other sagas, had become defective.

Árni Magnússon wrote the following on fol. 7v in AM 435 a 4to: “Antonii Saga (translata ex opere Athanasii) vantar upphafed. Pals postula Saga. Mariu Saga. Jons Saga Hola biskups. Augustini Saga. Folio magno, bandlaus. Þesse bok hefur heyrt Skalholltz kirkiu til, fyrer laungu, og vered svo smám saman rifin i sundur. Eg hefi morg blod ur henne feinged ur morgum stodum á Islande, ur ymsum landzhornum”. Kålund (Katalog vol. I p. 195) finds this account “temlig vidtløftig” (rather rambling).

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon's comments indicate that he acquired most of the codex from the Cathedral of Skálholt; he acquired the fragmentary parts from various places in Iceland after 1702; fol. 74 he acquired from Captain Magnús Arason in 1724.

Additional

Record History

Catalogued 11 May 2000 by EW-J.

Custodial History

The manuscript was lent twice to the Stockholm University Library (Stockholms universitetsbibliotek) for the use of Thorsten Carlsson, first from 29 November 1972 to 17 August 1973, and then from 18 September 1973 to 24 June 1976.

Surrogates

The Arnamagnæan Collection has the following surrogates: microfilm (master) G.neg.43s.d. microfilm (archive) G.pos.52s.d. 70 mm 70mm 52s.d. b/w prints AM 234 fol. March 1989 Prints from 70mm 52 microfilm (master) Neg. 984 4 December 1996 Supplementary photographs of the bookbinder's note. It is uncertain whether the note belongs to AM 234 fol. or AM 234 4to. microfilm (archive) Pos. 882 4 December 1996 Supplied photographs of the book binder's note. It is uncertain whether theDet er ikke klart hvorvidt denne note tilhører AM 234 fol. eller Am 234 4to. b/w prints AM 234 fol.s.d.Prints of fols 7 and 8v-81v.

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
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