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AM 62 fol.

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Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta; Iceland, 1350-1399

THREE DOTS WITH COMMA POSITURATHREE DOTS WITH COMMA POSITURA

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Name
Jón Sigurðsson 
Birth
17 June 1811 
Death
07 December 1879 
Occupation
Scholar; Archivist 
Roles
Scholar; Scribe; Author; Marginal; Owner; Donor; Correspondent; recipient 
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Name
Larsen Bloch, Matthias 
Occupation
Conservator 
Roles
Binder 
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Name
Lund, Carl 
Occupation
 
Roles
Binder 
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Name
Dall, Birgitte 
Birth
1912 
Death
1989 
Occupation
Book conservator 
Roles
Binder 
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Name
Kålund, Kristian Peter Erasmus 
Birth
19 August 1844 
Death
04 July 1919 
Occupation
Librarian, scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Stefán Karlsson 
Birth
02 December 1928 
Death
02 May 2006 
Occupation
Scholar 
Roles
Scholar 
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Name
Oddur Einarsson 
Birth
21 August 1559 
Death
28 December 1630 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Translator; recipient 
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LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DOUBLE ACUTELATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DOUBLE ACUTE

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Name
Páll Vigfússon 
Birth
1511 
Death
1570 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Vigfús Erlendsson 
Death
1521 
Occupation
Lögmaður 
Roles
Owner 
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Name
Mýrka 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Hörgádalur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Eyjafjarðarsýsla 
Region
Norðlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Árni Magnússon 
Birth
13 November 1663 
Death
07 January 1730 
Occupation
Professor, Arkivsekretær (Secretary of the Royal Archives) 
Roles
Scholar; Author; Scribe; Poet 
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Name
Skálholt 
Parish
Biskupstungnahreppur 
County
Árnessýsla 
Region
Sunnlendingafjórðungur 
Country
Iceland 
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Name
Ólafur Jónsson 
Birth
27 February 1672 
Death
27 September 1707 
Occupation
Priest 
Roles
Scribe; recipient 
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Name
Þórður Þorláksson 
Birth
14 September 1637 
Death
16 March 1697 
Occupation
Bishop 
Roles
Author; Owner; Poet; Translator 
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Name
Wedervang-Jensen, Eva 
Birth
26 March 1974 
Occupation
 
Roles
Cataloguer 
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Contents

1(1ra-51va:24)
Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta
Incipit

hann gret þo eigi. ok er Þorolfr vard þessa varr letti hann vpp

Explicit

“er | þa voro nykomnir til englandz af syrlandi ;

Language of Text

Non

Keywords

1.1(29rb-31va:23)
Norna-Gests þáttr
Incipit

ÞAt var a eini nott at

Explicit

ok þottí sannaz vm lifdaga hans sva sem hann sagdí”

Keywords

1.2(31va:23-32rb)
Helga Þáttr Þórissonar
Rubric

“her segir fra | godmun |di kkonvngi | af gl |asisu|ollum

Incipit

Þorir het madr er bío j noregi

Explicit

ok hefir engí | madr þav sed sidan

Final Rubric

ok lykr her þessi sǫgv etc.

Bibliography

Ólafur Halldórsson, Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta vol. III p. 38-44 Ed. D1

Keywords

1.3(33va-37vb)
Færeyinga saga
Rubric

“her hefir færeyíngar þattr”

Incipit

Madr er nefndr grimr kamban

Explicit

“varist [?] segía henni hvert þat dit”

Bibliography

Ólafur Halldórsson, Færeyinga saga p. 3-5, 8-11, 13-37, 39-41, 43, 49-67 Bottom text. Ed. D

Keywords

1.4(44rb:3-46ra)
Óláfr konungr braut goð þrænda
Rubric

“Capitulum”

Incipit

En er olafr konvngr hafdi skama stvnd verít i þrandheimi

Explicit

“ef þer hafít adr illa ok oheyrilí-|ga af honvm gengít”

Bibliography

Ólafur Halldórsson, Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta vol. III p. 1-14 Ed. D1

Keywords

1.5(50ra:2-b:4)
Tryggva Óláfssonar hefnt
Rubric

“Capitulum

Incipit

Sva bar at eítt sínn at haralldr konvngr | kom þar

Explicit

ok hafdi hann med ser j hírd sínní”

Bibliography

Ólafur Halldórsson, Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta vol. III p. 45-47 Ed. D1

Keywords

1.6(51va:25-52va:36)
Halldórs Þáttr Snorrasonar
Rubric

“sidasti þattr olaf|ssaug|o try|ggua|sonar | noreg|s konvngs”

Incipit

Halldor son snora goda af islandi var med haraldi konvngí sigvrdar syni

Explicit

“hann hafdi drepit | hirdmann haralldz konvngs ok hafdi hann þvi reidi a honvm”

Keywords

1.7(52vb:10-53vb:10)
Frá Sigurði byskupi
Incipit

Sęmilígr kenní madr ok godrar mínníngar

Explicit

“voro þav sammędd syskin in heilagri | olafr konvngr ok fyrnefnd gvnnhillde gvnnhilldr.”

Keywords

1.8(53vb:14-31)
Sýn Brestis
Rubric

“Kapitulum ”

Incipit

Sva hefir brodir Gvnlavgr ok sagt j latínv

Explicit

ok eptir þat hvarf þessi syn fra bresti”

Bibliography

Ólafur Halldórsson, Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta vol. III p. 65 Ed. D1

Keywords

1.9(53vb:32-39)
Frá Gunnlaugi ok Oddi
Incipit

Sva segía bdr gvnlavgr ok oddr

Explicit

“þar sem gízorí þotti þess vid | þvrfa ∴”

Keywords

Physical Description

Support

Parchment.

No. of leaves
53. Fols 32v and 33r are blank. 327 mm x 236 mm.
Foliation

Foliated in the upper right-hand corner of the recto-pages.

Collation

The manuscript consists of five extant gatherings:

  • I: Fols 1-10 make the first extant quire consisting of five, apparently intact, bifolia.
  • II: Fols 11-22 make a complete quire of six bifolia.
  • III: Fols 23-37 comprise seven bifolia and a singleton, fol. 28, the sixth leaf of the gathering. Col. 32rb has only 13 lines, the rest of the page and fols 32v and 33r are left blank by the scribe. It can be presumed that between fols 32 and 33 there was another blank leaf which made a pair with fol. 28 and was at some stage severed from it.
  • IV: Fols 38-47 make the present quire of five bifolia. There is a lacuna between fols 37 and 38, presumably only a single leaf.
  • V: Fols 48-53 make three pairs of conjoint leaves.

Condition

The manuscript is not well-preserved; the beginning is defective and there are lacunae after fols 10, 37 and 47. The extant leaves have all suffered in some degree from wear and damp. Many passages are consequently hard to decipher, but there has been no loss of text as such except on fol. 37, where the vellum has crumbled away leaving a large hole in the outer column. The vellum used for the codex was not particularly well prepared. Many leaves have holes or gashes in them, some of them large, which were sewn together before the scribe began the work.

Layout

The manuscript is written in double columns each approx. 250 mm x 84 mm with 39 to 42 lines. Majuscules occur in varying colours; shades of yellow, red, green and blue. Traces of gold are detectable here and there, e.g. on fols 3r, 22rb, 29rb, though probably not from true gold-leaf.

Most chapter-titles or division marks are in red, but a few are in blue or blue-black with a greenish tint. In some places, instead of chapter-titles, we find examples of a fish sketched in, and occasionally a kind of spiralling line, e.g. on fol. 3. A single example of a small foliage motive occurs on fol. 2vb:21.

Script

Apart from two short passages, the codex is written in a single hand. It is written in an Icelandic gothic bookhand and the orthography is unusually consistent. The scribe normally left spaces for decorated initials at the beginning of the first two lines of each chapter. It is the work from a practised and doubtless professional scribe, who can be counted among the very best of Icelandic penmen in the fourteenth century. The same writer was responsible for Stock. perg. 4to nr. 19, and at least a part of AM 122b fol. (Reykjarfjarðarbók).

The second hand wrote fol. 11ra:17-40 “fyʀnefndr - ar”. The writing here is partly erased and in places almost illegible. It is clear, however, that the orthography and palaeography of this hand is markedly different from the first hand.

The third hand wrote fol. 11rb:11-40 “margir - ketils”. This passage is in a very handsome professional Icelandic gothic bookhand, clearly differentiated from those of hand 1 and hand 2 in appearance but with many orthographic features in common with the latter.

Decoration

  • Fol. 15vb has a major initial, a littera florissa of a Þ of four lines with an extension down the left margin.
  • Fol. 29rb: The opening of Norna-Gests þáttr contains a littera florissa of the letter Þ with dots and branches. The first three lines are set in, but the round bow of the Þ extends up the upper margin, while the descendent runs down to the bottom of the margin. The bar is metamorphosing down the page from a dotted line to some sort of a branch with leaf-like outgrows and is ending in two spirals, and a leaf in the middle, in the lower margin. The top of the Þ is ending in one single spiral.
  • Fol. 31vaThe opening of Helga þáttr Þórissonar contains a major initial, a littera florissa of a Þ. 3 lines are set in, but the letter extends in the margin. The Þ ends with two spirals in the lower margin.
  • Fol. 33vaThe opening of Færeyinga saga contains a major initial, a littera florissa of the letter M with branches and leaves. The four top lines are set in, but the M extends in the upper margin. The right-hand line of the M just intrudes on of the first letters of the text, showing that the illumination was done after the scribe finished his work.
  • Fol. 46rbcontains a major initial a Þ with branches and leaves, with an extention down the margin with one fleur-de-lis-like outgrow, and ends with a fleur-de-lis.
  • Fol. 51va: The opening of Halldórs þáttr Snorrasonar contains a major initial, a littera florissa of the letter H. Four lines are set in, but the initial extends nine lines up the margin.
There are also some little drawings in the margins, e.g. fol. 10r: A man with a fish on the hook of his fishing rod; fol. 22r: A kissing couple; fol. 26r: Three knights fighting a dragon who is eating one of them.

Additions

There are a few proper marginalia in the codex and some of them are illegible, some can only be read in part.

  • Fol. 26r “Gifur(?) þu kv(?) | sem bezt sem | heiter frut|titum”. the reading of the last word is uncertain.
  • Fol. 27r between the columns: “íon | hef|vr g|ert og(?) | til | sett | br|ef” (sixteenth century).
  • Fol. 35v below the text: “Ek einar” (fifteenth century).
  • Fol. 36r below the text: “Austr ædd” (c. 1500).
  • Fol. 38r below the text: “ave maria” (c. 1500).
  • Fol. 46r below the text: “olafur | ok ” (fifteenth century).
  • The originally blank column 32rb has some nib-trials, including the alphabet, and there is more writing, pen trials, epistolary forms, apophthegms and the like, on the pages originally left blank, fols 32v and 33r.
  • At the top of fol. 32v a hand from c. 1400 or the first half of the fifteenth century wrote: “þeim godvm monnvm sem þetta bref sía edr heyra sennder sira gvdvardr prestr | þorkeli þormrmodzsyní kvedív gvds ok sína kvnnígt gerandi”.
  • At the top of fol. 32v below the note just mentioned another hand has written: “Þeim er eckí þat til mozt er þannen lifa sem wílía hallda síg med heídr ok gozs ok harma fra ser skílía∴ | Hʀafn aurn hane m?r þerna haukur stelkur spoe ualur ok kraka. langleítt haufut quad gyllta sá kautt j myrkri”. The stanza is from Skáld-Helga rímur but the list of bird-names and the adage are not known from elsewhere.
  • Parts of these entries are repeated in younger, unpractised hands in other spaces on fols 32v and 33r, as if it had been set them as a copybook model.
  • Fol. 32v “þoruardur skrifar illa” (c. 1500).
  • A little further down the page: “helge h.”
  • Fol. 33r “halur er erlaus þiofs haus” (sixteenth century), now very faint and perhaps partly scraped off. Elsewhere on the page “halur” is written on its own.
  • Fol. 33v in a rather clumsily script with matching spelling, most probably from the sixteenth century: “vertv at bok þine | bal fvsa son vel þa skaltu | fara til stehiaríns.”
  • Fol. 33v Another entry, doubtless made at or about the same time, and slightly more literate than the first, reads: “þeim godvm monnum vertu at bok þine ion narfa son medan ek | er aburtv ellegerar fær þv fleinging”.

Binding

In his catalogue, AM 394 fol., Jón Sigurðsson says that AM 62 fol. was bound in a pasteboard binding. This was probably the work of Mattias Larsen Bloch done at some time in the years 1771-73.

The manuscript was then re-bound three times, first, in the 1880'es and later, in 1934 by Carl Lund. During conservation from 9 March 1981 to 10 July 1984, the manuscript was rebound by Birgitte Dall in a modern standard half-binding.

Accompanying Material
There is an AM-slip pasted in front of the volume reading: “Þetta fragment true eg hafa | heyrt Skalholltz kirkiu til. | iafnvel þott þad eigi stande | i neinu afhendingar registre. | Eitt quer her ur feck eg ur ỏd-|rum stad enn resten. | Sira Olafur 1699. kallade þad…”

History

Origin

The manuscript was written in Iceland. Kristian Kålund (Katalog vol. I p. 41) dated the manuscript to the fifteenth century. Later, however, Stefán Karlsson (Ritun Reykjarfjarðarbókar p. 130) dated it to the end of the fourteenth century. Ólafur Halldórsson (The Saga of King Olaf Tryggvason p. 18) means that the manuscript probably was not written later than c. 1370-80.

Provenance

According to Ólafur Halldórsson (The Saga of King Olaf Tryggvason p. 18), a note written by bishop Oddur Einarsson in 1612, now in AM 416 a 4to, fol. 6v, should concern AM 62 fol. If this is true, Oddur borrowed the manuscript from Magnús Hjaltason, and then he in turn lent it to Grimur Ormsson. When Oddur borrowed the manuscript from Magnús, it was in poor shape, but was ruined when it was returned to Oddur: “Magnus Hialltaßon hefur | fyrer lỏngu ljed mier Olafs | sỏgur lasnar Þær liede | eg Grijme Ormßyne hier | heima vmm veturenn til jdku|nar þa hann var hia mjer | og fordiarfade hann þær suo | ad eg hef ecke getad þeim aptur | skilad þuij þær voru lasnar | adur. og fundust kueren | eptter honum aptur og framm | enn þad sem epter er af þeim | er hier til synes hef eg | tiad þetta fyrer Magnuse | og hefur hann lofad þad skyllde | kuitt þo hann feinge þær all|drej apttur þuj þær være | lijtels verdar. þo eru þær | obitaladar af mier til ”.

Two names are written on fol. 33v: They are those of Páll Fúsason (Vigfússon) (“bal fvsa son”) and Jón Narfason (“ion narfa son”), who were doubtless boys when they wrote the sentences. They can be identified as Páll Vigfússon, later lögmaður and living at Hlíðarendi in Fljótshlíð (1511-70) who was son of Vigfús Erlendsson lögmaður (d. 1521). Vigfús had a brother, Narfi, and Narfi’s son Jón must be the other youngster named on fol. 33v of the manuscript. Since the writer of the stanza from Skáld-Helga rímur and what follows it on fol. 32v was also the scribe of the document in AM Fasc. XIII 1, it is evident that the codex was in Eyjafjörður region at the time and probably at Mýrka in Hörgárdalur when the document was written in November 1451. Further support for the location of the manuscript in the region around Eyjafjörður may be found in the occurrence of the name Guðvardur on fol. 32v. Eyjafjarðarsýsla appears to be the only part of Iceland where this name was in use.

Acquisition

Árni Magnússon gives the following information about the acquisition of the manuscript on a slip at the front of the volume: “Þetta fragment true eg hafa | heyrt Skalholltz kirkiu til. | iafnvel þott þad eigi stande | i neinu afhendingar registre. | Eitt quer her ur feck eg ur ỏd-|rum stad enn resten. | Sira Olafur 1699. kallade þad…” The sira Ólafur reference is to a list of manuscripts which Jón Vídalín, bishop of Skálholt, sent to Árni in 1699.

The list, written by sira Ólafur Jónsson (1672-1702), no longer exists but an extract from it in Árni Magnússon's hand is in AM 435 a 4to, fol. 154r-v: “Anno 1699. sende Mag. Jon Th.s. | mier Registur yfir nockrar kalf-|skinns skrædur, giỏrt af Sira Olafi Jons | syne, sem hann qvadst mier ut|vegad geta. Þar i bland voru | fragmenta af Olafs Sỏgu Tryggva-|sonar in folio. (a) a] Þetta fragment eignadist eg sidan, er i | storu folio. Item feck eg ur ỏdrum | stad ä Islande nockud sem heyrde þar | til, og lagde eg þad hier sammanvid”.

On fol. 57v in AM 435 a 4to, also in Árni's hand, is the following: “Fragmentum af Olafs Sỏgu Tryggvasonar, i storu folio: hefur til forna, öefad, heyrt Skalholltzkirkiu til. Eg feck þetta fragment i tveim stỏdum, ä Islande, nockud þar af Mag. Jone Widalin, og nockud ur ỏdrum stad.”

An inventory of property of Skálholt was made when Þórður Þorláksson succeeded as bishop in 1674. From it Árni Magnússon produced a list of the Icelandic books the cathedral of Skálholt owned at that time, now found on fols 153 and 156 of AM 435a 4to. No. 6 in the list is Olafs saga Helga, here Árni denies that the codex belonged to Skálholt: “Þetta mun vera einhvernveiginn mis-|skrifad, þvi eingin Olafs Helga Saga | hefur fylgt Skalholltz kirkiu so mikid sem eg hefe askynia orded. Kynne | vera villt malum, og eiga ad vera | Olafs Tryggvasonar Sỏgu frag-|mentum, kanskie þad sem er i | stőru folio, og kynne þa hafa fyll-|ra vered, þő þad sie og ővïst. | Endelega kynne þeir sem afhend-|ïnguna giỏrdu, hafa lited skagt til, | og tekid qvi pro qvo.”

Ólafur Haldórsson (The Saga of King Olaf Tryggvason p. 18) suggests that it is possible that the codex originally contained the sagas of both kings, Ólafs saga helga and — Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar, and that in 1674 it still had at least parts of — Ólafs saga helga in it. He asserts that this surmise finds support in the note written by Bishop Oddur Einarsson in 1612 (see above).

Additional

Record History

Katalogiseret 19 Oktober 1999 af EW-J.

Custodial History

During the restoration 9 March 1981 to 10 July 1984 by Birgitte Dall the leaves were restored and set on meeting guards and the manuscript was rebound in a modern standard half binding.

The manuscript was photographed twice, the first time in 1968 and for the second time 6 August 1992. The second set of photographs was presumably made for the facsimily-edition.

Supplementary photographs of fols 29-32r and 37, 38r.

In August 1992 photographs in uv-light were taken of fols 1r, 5v, 6r, 9r, 10v, 11r-v, 13r, 20v, 21r-v, 23r, 24v, 25r, 26r, 30r, 33v, 34r, 37v, 38r, 43r, 51v, and 53v.

Surrogates

plate plade 133 6 August 1992. plate plade 21 s.d. Supplementary photographs of fols 29-32r, 37, 38r. b/w prints AM 62 fol. 6. August 1992 b/w prints AM 62 fol. s.d. supplementary photographs of fols 29-32r and 37, 38r. b/w prints AM 62 fol. August 1992 Supplementary photogrpahs in uv-light of fols 1r, 5v, 6r, 9r, 10v, 11r-v, 13r, 20v, 21r-v, 23r, 24v, 25r, 26r, 30r, 33v, 34r, 37v, 38r, 43r, 51v, and 53v. diapositive AM 29 fol. s.d. fol. 29r

Bibliography

AuthorTitleEditorScope
Saga Ólafs konúngs Tryggvasonar, Fornmanna sögur1825; I
Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta, ed. Ólafur Halldórsson1958; I
Hallfreðar saga, ed. Bjarni Einarsson1977; XV
Willem van Eeden“De overlevering van de Hallfreðar saga”, Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, Afd. Letterkunde ; nieuwe reeks, deel 19: Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde1919; p. 126 p.
Söguþáttr af Norna-Gesti, Norröne Skrifter af Sagnhistorisk Indhold (Det norske Oldskriftselskabs Samlinger)ed. Sophus Bugge1864; VI
Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta, ed. Ólafur Halldórsson2000; III
Il racconto di Nornagestr: Edizione critica, traduzione e commentaro, Medioevied. Adele Cipolla1996; I
Færeyinga sagap. 3-5, 8-11, 13-37, 39-41, 43, 49-67
Niðrlag sögu Ólafs konungs Tryggvasonar með tilheyrandi þáttum, Fornmanna sögur1827; III
Katalog over Den Arnamagnæanske Håndskriftsamlinged. Kristian KålundI: p. 41
Stefán Karlsson“Ritun Reykjarfjarðarbókar. Excursus: Bókagerð bőnda”, p. 120-140
The saga of King Olaf Tryggvason: AM 62 fol, Early Icelandic Manuscripts in Facsimileed. Ólafur Halldórsson1993; XX
1992
1992
1992
Ólafur Halldórsson“Úr sögu skinnbóka”, Skírnir1963; CXXXVII: p. 83-105
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